Full Text:   <3617>

CLC number: TU411.8; TU435

On-line Access: 

Received: 2004-07-22

Revision Accepted: 2005-02-03

Crosschecked: 0000-00-00

Cited: 6

Clicked: 7095

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2005 Vol.6 No.8 P.805-812


Correlation of liquefaction resistance with shear wave velocity based on laboratory study using bender element

Author(s):  ZHOU Yan-guo, CHEN Yun-min, KE Han

Affiliation(s):  Department of Civil Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China

Corresponding email(s):   qzking@zju.edu.cn

Key Words:  Liquefaction resistance, Shear wave velocity, Sand, Cyclic triaxial test, Laboratory correlation, Bender element

ZHOU Yan-guo, CHEN Yun-min, KE Han. Correlation of liquefaction resistance with shear wave velocity based on laboratory study using bender element[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2005, 6(8): 805-812.

@article{title="Correlation of liquefaction resistance with shear wave velocity based on laboratory study using bender element",
author="ZHOU Yan-guo, CHEN Yun-min, KE Han",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Correlation of liquefaction resistance with shear wave velocity based on laboratory study using bender element
%A ZHOU Yan-guo
%A CHEN Yun-min
%A KE Han
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 6
%N 8
%P 805-812
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2005
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.2005.A0805

T1 - Correlation of liquefaction resistance with shear wave velocity based on laboratory study using bender element
A1 - ZHOU Yan-guo
A1 - CHEN Yun-min
A1 - KE Han
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 6
IS - 8
SP - 805
EP - 812
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2005
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.2005.A0805

Recent studies using field case history data yielded new criteria for evaluating liquefaction potential in saturated granular deposits based on in situ, stress-corrected shear wave velocity. However, the conditions of relatively insufficient case histories and limited site conditions in this approach call for additional data to more reliably define liquefaction resistance as a function of shear wave velocity. In this study, a series of undrained cyclic triaxial tests were conducted on saturated sand with shear wave velocity Vs measured by bender element. By normalizing the data with respect to minimum void ratio, the test results, incorporated with previously published laboratory data, statistically revealed good correlation of cyclic shear strength with small-strain shear modulus for sandy soils, which is almost irrespective of soil types and confining pressures. The consequently determined cyclic resistance ratio, CRR, was found to be approximately proportional to Vs4. liquefaction resistance boundary curves were established by applying this relationship and compared to liquefaction criteria derived from seismic field measurements. Although in the range of Vs1>200 m/s the presented curves are moderately conservative, they are remarkably consistent with the published field performance criteria on the whole.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1] Andrus, R.D., Stokoe, K.H.II, 1997. Liquefaction Resistance Based on Shear Wave Velocity. Proc. NCEER Workshop on Evaluation of Liquefaction Resistance of Soils, Tech. Rep. NCEER-97-0022, National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, Buffalo, p.89-128.

[2] Andrus, R.D., Stokoe, K.H.II, 2000. Liquefaction resistance of soils from shear-wave velocity. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 126(11):1015-1025.

[3] Andrus, R.D., Stokoe, K.H.II, Chung, R.M., 1999. Draft Guidelines for Evaluating Liquefaction Resistance Using Shear Wave Velocity Measurements and Simplified Procedures. NISTIR 6277, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

[4] Chen, Y.C., Liao, T.S., 1999. Dynamic Properties and State Parameter of Sand. Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, 1:529-535.

[5] de Alba, P., Baldwin, K., Janoo, V., Roe, G., Celikkol, B., 1984. Elastic-wave velocities and liquefaction potential. Geotechnical Testing Journal, ASTM, 7(2):77-87.

[6] Dyvik, R., Madshus, C., 1985. Laboratory Measurement of Gmax Using Bender Elements. Proceedings of ASCE Annual Convention: Advances in the Art of Testing Soils under Cyclic Conditions, Detroit.

[7] Harder, L.F.Jr., 1997. Application of the Becker Penetration Test for Evaluating the Liquefaction Potential of Gravelly Soils. Proc. NCEER Workshop on Evaluation of Liquefaction Resistance of Soils, National Center for Engineering Research, Buffalo, p.129-148.

[8] Hardin, B.O., Richart, F.E.Jr., 1963. Elastic wave velocities in granular soils. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, ASCE, 89(1):33-65.

[9] Huang, B., Yin, J.H., Chen, Y.M., Wu, S.M., 2001. Measurements of elastic shear modulus Gmax using piezoceramic bender elements. Journal of Vibration Engineering, 14(2):155-160 (in Chinese).

[10] Huang, Y.T., Huang, A.B., Kuo, Y.C., Tsai, M.D., 2004. A laboratory study on the undrained strength of a silty sand from Central Western Taiwan. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 24:733-743.

[11] Ishihara, K., 1996. Soil Behavior in Earthquake Geotechnics. Oxford Univ. Press, New York.

[12] Ke, H., Chen, Y.M., 2000. An improved method for evaluating liquefaction potential by the velocity of shear-waves. Acta Seismologica Sinica, 22(6):637-644.

[13] Rauch, A.F., Duffy, M., Stokoe, K.H.II, 2000. Laboratory correlation of liquefaction resistance with shear wave velocity. Geotechnical Special Publication, ASCE, 110:66-80.

[14] Robertson, P.K., Wride, C.E., 1998. Evaluating cyclic liquefaction potential using the cone penetration test. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 35(3):442-459.

[15] Robertson, P.K., Woeller, D.J., Finn, W.D.L., 1992. Seismic cone penetration test for evaluating liquefaction potential under cyclic loading. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 29:686-695.

[16] Sakai, Y., Yasuda, S., 1977. Liquefaction Characteristics of Undisturbed Sandy Soils. Proc. 12th Annual Meeting JSSMFE, p.389-392 (in Japanese).

[17] Seed, H.B., 1979. Soil liquefaction and cyclic mobility for level ground during earthquakes. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, 105(2):201-255.

[18] Seed, H.B., Idriss, I.M., 1971. Simplified procedure for evaluating soil liquefaction potential. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, ASCE, 97(9):1249-1273.

[19] Seed, H.B., Tokimatsu, K., Harder, L.F., Chung, R.M., 1985. The influence of SPT procedures in soil liquefaction resistance evaluations. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 111(12):1425-1445.

[20] Shirley, D.J., Hampton, L.D., 1978. Shear wave measurements in laboratory sediments. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 63(2):607-613.

[21] Thomann, T.G., Hryciw, R.D., 1990. Laboratory measurement of small strain shear modulus under K0 conditions. Geotechnical Testing Journal, ASTM, 13(2):97-105.

[22] Tokimatsu, K., Uchida, A., 1990. Correlation between liquefaction resistance and shear wave velocity. Soils and Foundations, JSSMFE, 30(2):33-42.

[23] Viggiani, G., Atkinson, J.H., 1995. The interpretation of the bender element tests. Geotechnique, 45(1):149-154.

[24] Zhou, Y.G., Chen, Y.M., Huang, B., 2005a. Experimental study of seismic cyclic loading effects on small strain shear modulus of saturated sands. Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE, 6A(3):229-236.

[25] Zhou, Y.G., Chen, Y.M., Ke, H., 2005b. Improvement on simplified procedure for liquefaction potential evaluation of sands by shear wave velocity. Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, in Press (in Chinese).

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2024 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE