Authors who submit their manuscripts (for JZUS-B, in Word format only; for JZUS-A and FITEE, in Word or LaTex) should read the following carefully, and follow the guidelines. Complete compliance from the authors is required. Any non-compliance may lead to manuscript rejection or revision.

  1.  I. Paper Format Requirements
  2.  II. Style Conventions
  3.  III. Optimizing Titles and Abstracts
  4.  IV. Avoiding Plagiarism
  5.  V. Downloads (Word/LaTex templates, etc.)

I. Paper Format Requirements TOP

1. Figures

Format  At the revision stage, authors who have created their files using a drawing or painting program such as Visio, Origin, Excel, AutoCAD, Coreldraw should provide the original files that can be edited. Authors who have created their files using a drawing or painting program should export the files to TIFF, EPS, PSD, RAW, etc. format. Matlab figures are expected to be exported to EMF or EPS format. The figure’s magnification should be expressed by scale bars.

Resolution  For manuscripts in the revision stage, adequate figure resolution is essential to a high-quality print and online rendering of your paper. Raster line art should carry an absolute minimum resolution of 600 dots per inch (dpi).

Line width  The line width should generally be no less than 0.25 pt, and in our journal, the common line width is 0.5/0.75 pt. Please note that the actual line width changes with the scale of the figure. In different software, we recommend the line width: Visio: — 03; Origin: — 1.5; Matlab: — 1.5 pt, etc.

Figures must be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals, and each figure must be placed in the text following the paragraph in which it is first mentioned. A caption giving the figure number and a brief description must be included. The caption should be understandable without reference to the text. Figures should be cited in the text using the following format: Fig. 1, Fig. 1a, Figs. 1 and 2, Figs. 1–3, or Figs. 1a–1c.

There will be an extra charge for those graphics considered for publication in color. Authors are expected to use different line types to distinguish the different parts of a figure that they do not want to have published in color.

2. Tables

Tables should be set up in Word and should usually contain three horizontal lines. Do not use vertical lines. Each table must have a brief title that describes its contents. The title should be understandable without reference to the text. Details such as explanatory material, specific entries, and definitions of non-standard abbreviations should be put in table footnotes, not in the title. In setting up tables, authors should keep in mind the area of the Journal’s page (16.4 cm×22.8 cm) and the column width (8.0 cm) and should make tables conform to the limitations of these dimensions.
All tables must be mentioned in the text in consecutive order and must be numbered with Arabic numbers. Tables should be cited in the text using the following format: Table 1, Tables 1 and 2, or Tables 1–3.

3. Variables and formulae

Variables, regardless of the context (formula, figure or table), should be in Italics (e.g., x1); if a variable represents a vector or a matrix, it should be in Italics & bold (e.g., x1). Numerals and operators should never be italicized unless they are components of a variable.
Authors are encouraged to import symbols and simple equations using normal text and fonts, e.g., “α” (not “” in MathType), “−” (not “-“) for a minus. A Word list of commonly used symbols that can be copied and pasted into manuscripts is available at
For complex formulae, use a formula editor (e.g., MathType) and define the sizes as follows:

4. Units

M→mol/L, rpm→r/min, etc.

ppm→10−6, Å→0.1 nm, etc.

30 minutes→30 min, 2 hours→2 h, 10 days→10 d, etc.

5.Text Citation

The basic form of the author-date in the text consists of the author’s last (family) name. a comma, and the year of publication of the work.
Examples of text citations:
One author: (Vandermeer, 1990)
Two authors: (Sun and Wang, 2000; Cao and Xu, 2001)
Three or more authors: (Moons et al., 1997; Schlag et al., 2000a; 2000b)

6. Reference List (for accepted papers)

The reference list provides complete information of the author-date citation in English and lists in alphabetical order of authors’ surnames. For references with more than three authors, the first three names should be given, followed by et al. The references mentioned in the text should accord with the reference list. For a reference published other than in English, the language used should be noted at the end of the reference list, e.g., (in Chinese). The publisher and place of publication should be given for a book or proceedings. The DOI (refer to should be provided if it is available.

Reference list examples:

The Endnote/Mendeley template for JZUS-A/JZUS-B/FITEE is available here.

For journal articles

Tanner, N.A., Wait, J.R., Farrar, C.R., et al., 2003.Structural health monitoring using modular wireless sensors. J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct., 14(1):43-56.

For proceedings

Gorini, S., Quirini, M., Menciassi, A., et al., 2006. A novel SMA-based actuator for a legged endoscopic capsule. First IEEE/RAS-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics, p.443-449.

For whole books/monographs or chapters in edited books

Gregersen, H., 2006. Biomechanics of the Gastrointestinal Tract. People’s Medical Publishing House, Beijing, China, p.216-236 (in Chinese).

Prigogine, I., 1976. Order through fluctuation: self-organization and social system. In: Jantsch, E., Waddington, C. (Eds.), Evolution and Consciousness: Human Systems in Transition. Addison-Wesley, London, p.93-134.

For theses

Rizvi, U.H., 2006. Combined Multiple Transmit Antennas and Multi-level Modulation Techniques. MS Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

For reports

Sweeney, L., 2000. Uniqueness of Simple Demographics in the U.S. Population. Technical Report No. LIDAP-WP4, Laboratory for International Data Privacy, Carnegie Mellon University, PA.

For preprints

Wu, Z., An, Y., Wang, Z., et al., 2008. Study on zoelite enhanced contact-adsorption regeneration-stabilization process for nitrogen removal. J. Hazard. Mater., in press.

For a standard

SEPA (State Environmental Protection Administration), 1997. Integrated Emission Standard of Air Pollutants, GB 16297-1996. National Standards of People's Republic of China (in Chinese).

For a patent

Cookson, A.H., 1985. Particle Trap for Compressed Gas Insulated Transmission Systems. US Patent 4554399.

For a Website

University of Sheffield Library, 2001. Citing Electronic Sources of Information. University of Sheffield. Available from [Accessed on Feb. 23, 2007].

For e-publication

Kampf, S.K., Salazar, M., Tyler, S.W., 2002. Preliminary investigations of effluent drainage from mining heap leach facilities.Vadose Zone J., 1:186-196. Available from

II. Style conventionsTOP

1. Abbreviations

When a term appears for the first time in the Abstract or in the formal text, it should be expanded, with its abbreviation in parentheses following immediately:

2. Capitalization

Capitalize genus names in their singular form, but not in their plural form:

Do not capitalize chemical names:

3. Genus and Species

In “Escherichia coli,” “Escherichia” is the genus and “coli” the species name. After the first mention of the singular form in the text, abbreviate the genus name when used with species:

4. Italics

Italicize genera and species in their singular form, but not in their plural form:

5. Numbers

(1) Use words for numbers one through nine when no abbreviation or symbol follows the number:

(2) Use Arabic numerals for numbers greater that nine:

(3) Use words when a number is the first word of a sentence:

(4) Use Arabic numerals before an abbreviation or symbol, even at the beginning of a sentence:

(5) Use Arabic numerals in a sentence in which some numbers are above 10 and some below 10:

(6) Use Arabic numerals for measures of years, months, weeks, days, hours, minutes, and seconds:

(7) Use Arabic numerals for all ages:

(8) Use words and Arabic numerals in the following case for clarity:

6. Percentage

(1) Use Arabic numerals plus the symbol %:

(2) Use word number and “percent” in the beginning of a sentence:

(3) When a concentration is expressed as a percentage, include v/v, v/w, or w/w:

7. Patient or subject

A patient is a person with a target disease recruited in a study, while a subject is a healthy person without that target disease who serves as a control in the study. Both a patient and a subject are participants in a study.

8. Punctuation

For clarity and consistency, always put a comma before “and” in a series:

9. Quotation marks

Place commas and periods inside quotation marks:

III. Optimizing Titles and AbstractsTOP

1. The title and Abstract are key for a paper to be cited after publication for the following reasons:

(1) They are available online to every reader.
(2) The reader may read only the Title/Abstract in their literature search; they may not read the full text if the Abstract is not attractive.
(3) Search engines mostly identify key words in the Title, and some may scan the Abstract as well for repeated key words or phrases; therefore, appropriate wording, phrasing, and organizing are crucial for increasing the chances of being caught by search engines.

2. Tips for optimizing the Title

(1) The title should be clear and descriptive.
(2) The title should contain key words.
(3) Put yourself in the shoes of the reader, thinking what searching terms they are likely to use.

3. Tips for optimizing the Abstract

(1) Use the same key words and phrases in the Title and Abstract, to increase the chances of being found by search engines.
(2) Organize messages logically and clearly, and make points flow and text readable to encourage the reader to read it through.
(3) Include sufficient necessary information (objective, methods, results, and conclusion) so that the reader will gain a clear impression of the whole study.

IV. Avoiding plagiarism TOP

1. Recognizing plagiarism

In dealing with specific knowledge, plagiarism can occur in the following situations:
(1) Using ideas and words of others without clearly acknowledging the source of that information.
(2) Copying another person’s phrases or sentences without putting quotation marks around them.
(3) Even if the writer cites the source of the phrase or sentence, but substantially changes the way the original message was written, or in other words, the writer constructs unacceptable paraphrases.

2. How to construct acceptable paraphrases

(1) Thoroughly understand the original message, and then rewrite the message in your own words without peeking the original text.
(2) Use a combination of rhetorical measures such as replacing words, changing the orders of words or sentences, altering voice, or adding/removing conjunctives.
(3) Check your paraphrase against the original text to avoid accidental use of the same phrases or words.
(4) Make sure that your paraphrasing is accurate to the original.

3. Examples of unacceptable paraphrases

Original text:
In DC-9815–treated mice, cell line-derived BRAF tumors exhibited stronger and more sustained pharmacodynamic inhibition (>85% for 12 h) compared with mutant KRAS-expressing tumors (Chen et al., 2006).

Unacceptable paraphrase:
It was reported that, in DC-9815–treated mice, cell line-derived BRAF tumors presented stronger (>85%) and more sustained pharmacodynamic inhibition (12 h), in comparison with mutant KRAS-expressing tumors (Chen et al., 2006).
The sentence was paraphrased by replacing “exhibited” with “presented” and other slight changes; however, it remains basically unchanged.

Acceptable paraphrase:
Chen et al.(2006) reported that DC-9815 pharmacodynamically inhibited the growth of cell line-derived BRAF tumors in mice (>85% for 12 h) compared with mutant KRAS-expressing tumors.
The writer used DC-9815 as the subject, thus generating a feeling of a new, distinct sentence.

4. What is common knowledge

If a message is within the category of common knowledge, then a writer does not need to cite its source. Common knowledge consists of facts that are generally known to many people and can be found in numerous places. However, the writer needs to use common sense to make a judgment:

5. Examples of reporting commonly-used methods

When reporting a commonly-used method, a writer should not completely copy from others, but needs to use his/her own wording or sentencing to report the key, important points of the procedure. The following examples show how Western blot analysis, a method very commonly used in biology, can be presented in different ways, indicating enormous room for various styles of wording and sentencing to avoid copying.
(1) Western blot analysis was performed using a phospho-specific FGFR antibody (pFGFR Tyr653/654; Cell Signaling). The Western blot was then stripped and reprobed for total FGFR2 (Bek C-17, Santa Cruz).

(2) Cells were homogenized in lysis buffer [50 mmol/L Tris/HCl (pH 7.5), 150 mmol/L NaCl, 1% (v/v) Triton X-100, 1% (v/v) deoxycholate, 0.1% (w/v) NaN3, 1 mmol/L EGTA, 0.2 mmol/L Na3VO4, protease inhibitor cocktail, and phosphatase inhibitor cocktail]. Lysates were centrifuged at 14000×g for 20 min, and frozen at −20 °C overnight. Protein concentration was then measured using BCA protein assay kit (Bio Rad). Equal amounts of total protein (30 µg) were loaded into 4%–20% NuPage Bis-Tris gels (Invitrogen), electrophoresed in 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid buffer, and transferred to nitrocellulose membranes (Invitrogen). Detection of phospho-MEK was accomplished with antibody against pMEK (Phospho-Ser 218, 222) (1:1000, Cell Signaling). A monoclonal antibody against glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) (Sigma) was used as a loading control. The enhanced chemiluminescence Advance Western Blotting Detection Kit from Amersham Biosciences, Inc. (Piscataway, NJ) was used to develop the blots.

V. Downloads TOP

Word/LaTex templates, Endnote/Mendeley templates, and other frequently used files are available here.

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