Full Text:   <2032>

Summary:  <1802>

CLC number: X506; X513

On-line Access: 2015-01-04

Received: 2014-06-20

Revision Accepted: 2014-11-06

Crosschecked: 2014-12-25

Cited: 2

Clicked: 3862

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

 ORCID:

Xu CAI

http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6620-057X

Qun-xing HUANG

http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1557-3955

-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2015 Vol.16 No.1 P.70-80

http://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.A1400178


Characterization of zinc vapor condensation in fly ash particles using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy


Author(s):  Xu Cai, Qun-xing Huang, Moussa-mallaye Alhadj-Mallah, Yong Chi, Jian-hua Yan

Affiliation(s):  State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Institute for Thermal Power Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China

Corresponding email(s):   hqx@zju.edu.cn

Key Words:  Zinc speciation, Condensation, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Solid waste


Share this article to: More <<< Previous Article|

Xu Cai, Qun-xing Huang, Moussa-mallaye Alhadj-Mallah, Yong Chi, Jian-hua Yan. Characterization of zinc vapor condensation in fly ash particles using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2015, 16(1): 70-80.

@article{title="Characterization of zinc vapor condensation in fly ash particles using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy",
author="Xu Cai, Qun-xing Huang, Moussa-mallaye Alhadj-Mallah, Yong Chi, Jian-hua Yan",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
volume="16",
number="1",
pages="70-80",
year="2015",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",
doi="10.1631/jzus.A1400178"
}

%0 Journal Article
%T Characterization of zinc vapor condensation in fly ash particles using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy
%A Xu Cai
%A Qun-xing Huang
%A Moussa-mallaye Alhadj-Mallah
%A Yong Chi
%A Jian-hua Yan
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 16
%N 1
%P 70-80
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2015
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A1400178

TY - JOUR
T1 - Characterization of zinc vapor condensation in fly ash particles using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy
A1 - Xu Cai
A1 - Qun-xing Huang
A1 - Moussa-mallaye Alhadj-Mallah
A1 - Yong Chi
A1 - Jian-hua Yan
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 16
IS - 1
SP - 70
EP - 80
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2015
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A1400178


Abstract: 
Heavy metals released from municipal solid waste incinerators have become a major environmental concern. A comprehensive knowledge of metal vapor condensation in fly ash particles during incineration is essential for alleviating heavy metal toxicity, and for optimizing incineration process parameters and flue-gas cleaning systems. In this paper, the condensation of zinc vapor during flue-gas cooling in a 200 t/d fluidized bed incinerator and a 150 t/d moving grate incinerator was characterized and comparatively studied using high resolution synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Principal component analysis, target transformation, and linear combination fitting were employed to identify zinc species directly from size fractionated fly ash particles. The chemical reaction behaviors of different zinc species were described by thermodynamic equilibrium simulations. Consistent with previous theoretical analysis and laboratory scale tests, the condensation behavior of zinc in an industrial incineration system is mainly affected by the sulfur/chlorine ratio and the inorganic particulates. It is found that zinc chloride is the major zinc species in a moving grate incinerator but willemite dominates in the fluidized bed incinerator. The high sulfur and silica/alumina particle concentration in the fluidized bed system changes the condensation propensity of vapors of Zn compounds. Adjusting the concentrations of SO2 in flue-gas can inhibit the formation of zinc chlorides. Silica, alumina, aluminosilicates, and calcium-based compounds are potential sorbents for transforming zinc to less harmful species. To prevent toxic zinc species contained in fine particles from escaping into the atmosphere, wet scrubbers are more suitable for cleaning flue-gases in moving grate incineration systems, while improving the efficiency of dust removal is more important for fluidized bed incineration systems.

同步辐射技术研究金属锌蒸汽在飞灰小颗粒表面的凝结特性

目的:寻找金属污染物在热转化过程中的生成和迁移规律,为可燃固体废弃物高效清洁能源化利用提供科学指导。
方法:飞灰采自两台不同类型在运行固废焚烧炉;采样位置位于烟气净化系统之前以规避干扰;利用同步辐射技术中的X射线近边吸收结构和吸收精细结构谱图结合热力学模拟对金属锌的形态进行分析和研究。
结论:1. 金属锌在炉排炉飞灰小颗粒上主要以氯化物形式存在,而在流化床飞灰小颗粒上是以铝硅酸盐为主;2. 燃烧过程中的高硫氮比能够有效减少锌有毒形态的生成;3. 硅、铝和钙基材料是锌蒸汽有效的吸附剂。

关键词:形态;冷凝特性;同步辐射;固体废弃物

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article

Reference

[1]Abanades, S., Flamant, G., Gauthier, D., et al., 2005. Development of an inverse method to identify the kinetics of heavy metal release during waste incineration in fluidized bed. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 124(1-3):19-26.

[2]Belevi, H., Moench, H., 2000. Factors determining the element behavior in municipal solid waste incinerators. 1. field studies. Environmental Science & Technology, 34(12):2501-2506.

[3]Chang, M.B., Huang, C.K., Wu, H.T., et al., 2000. Characteristics of heavy metals on particles with different sizes from municipal solid waste incineration. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 79(3):229-239.

[4]Diaz-Somoano, M., Martínez-Tarazona, M.R., 2005. High-temperature removal of cadmium from a gasification flue-gas using solid sorbents. Fuel, 84(6):717-721.

[5]Fernández, E., Jimenez, R., Lallena, A.M., et al., 2004. Evaluation of the BCR sequential extraction procedure applied for two unpolluted Spanish soils. Environmental Pollution, 131(3):355-364.

[6]Gale, T.K., Wendt, J.O.L., 2002. High-temperature interactions between multiple-metals and kaolinite. Combustion and Flame, 131(3):299-307.

[7]Hales, M., Frost, R., 2008. Thermal analysis of smithsonite and hydrozincite. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 91(3):855-860.

[8]Hasselriis, F., Licata, A., 1996. Analysis of heavy metal emission data from municipal waste combustion. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 47(1-3):77-102.

[9]Hecht, D., Frahm, R., Strehblow, H.H., 1996. Quick-scanning EXAFS in the reflection mode as a probe for structural information of electrode surfaces with time resolution: an in situ study of anodic silver oxide formation. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 100(26):10831-10833.

[10]Hesterberg, D., Sayers, D.E., Zhou, W.Q., et al., 1997. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of lead and zinc speciation in a contaminated groundwater aquifer. Environmental Science & Technology, 31(10):2840-2846.

[11]Huggins, F.E., Shah, N., Huffman, G.P., et al., 2000. XAFS spectroscopic characterization of elements in combustion ash and fine particulate matter. Fuel Processing Technology, 65-66:203-218.

[12]Jiao, F., Zhang, L., Yamada, N., et al., 2013a. Effect of HCl, SO2 and H2O on the condensation of heavy metal vapors in flue-gas cooling section. Fuel Processing Technology, 105:181-187.

[13]Jiao, F., Zhang, L., Song, W., et al., 2013b. Effect of inorganic particulates on the condensation behavior of lead and zinc vapors upon flue-gas cooling. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 34(2):2821-2829.

[14]Kirpichtchikova, T.A., Manceau, A., Spadini, L., et al., 2006. Speciation and solubility of heavy metals in contaminated soil using X-ray microfluorescence, EXAFS spectroscopy, chemical extraction, and thermodynamic modelling. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70(9):2163-2190.

[15]Manceau, A., Marcus, M.A., Tamura, N., 2002. Quantitative speciation of heavy metals in soils and sediments by synchrotron X-ray techniques. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 49(1):341-428.

[16]Manceau, A., Marcus, M.A., Tamura, N., et al., 2004. Natural speciation of Zn at the micrometer scale in a clayey soil using X-ray fluorescence, absorption, and diffraction. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 68(11):2467-2483.

[17]Narukawa, T., Takatsu, A., Chiba, K., et al., 2005. Investigation on chemical species of arsenic, selenium and antimony in fly ash from coal fuel thermal power stations. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 7(12):1342-1348.

[18]Newville, M., 2001. IFEFFIT: interactive XAFS analysis and FEFF fitting. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 8(2):322-324.

[19]Osán, J., Meirer, F., Groma, V., et al., 2010. Speciation of copper and zinc in size-fractionated atmospheric particulate matter using total reflection mode X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectrometry. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, 65(12):1008-1013.

[20]Ravel, B., Newville, M., 2005. ATHENA, ARTEMIS, HEPHAESTUS: data analysis for X-ray absorption spectroscopy using IFEFFIT. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 12(4):537-541.

[21]Ressler, T., Wong, J., Roos, J., et al., 2000. Quantitative speciation of Mn-bearing particulates emitted from autos burning (methylcyclopentadienyl) manganese tricarbonyl-added gasolines using XANES spectroscopy. Environmental Science & Technology, 34(6):950-958.

[22]Roberts, D.R., Scheinost, A.C., Sparks, D.L., 2002. Zinc speciation in a smelter-contaminated soil profile using bulk and microspectroscopic techniques. Environmental Science & Technology, 36(8):1742-1750.

[23]Shoji, T., Huggins, F.E., Huffman, G.P., et al., 2002. XAFS spectroscopy analysis of selected elements in fine particulate matter derived from coal combustion. Energy & Fuels, 16(2):325-329.

[24]Sinclair, A.H., Edgerton, E.S., Wyzga, R., et al., 2010. A two-time-period comparison of the effects of ambient air pollution on outpatient visits for acute respiratory illnesses. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 60(2):163-175.

[25]Song, W., Jiao, F., Yamada, N., et al., 2013. Condensation behavior of heavy metals during oxy-fuel combustion: deposition, species distribution, and their particle characteristics. Energy & Fuels, 27(10):5640-5652.

[26]Sørum, L., Frandsen, F.J., Hustad, J.E., 2003. On the fate of heavy metals in municipal solid waste combustion. Part I: devolatilisation of heavy metals on the grate. Fuel, 82(18):2273-2283.

[27]Strawn, D.G., Baker, L.L., 2009. Molecular characterization of copper in soils using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Environmental Pollution, 157(10):2813-2821.

[28]Struis, R.P.W.J., Ludwig, C., Lutz, H., et al., 2004. Speciation of zinc in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash after heat treatment: an X-ray absorption spectroscopy study. Environmental Science & Technology, 38(13):3760-3767.

[29]Takaoka, M., Yamamoto, T., Tanaka, T., et al., 2005. Direct speciation of lead, zinc and antimony in fly ash from waste treatment facilities by XAFS spectroscopy. Physica Scripta, T115:943-945.

[30]Tran, Q.K., Steenari, B.M., Iisa, K., et al., 2004. Capture of potassium and cadmium by kaolin in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. Energy & Fuels, 18(6):1870-1876.

[31]van der Sloot, H.A., Kosson, D.S., Hjelmar, O., 2001. Characteristics, treatment and utilization of residues from municipal waste incineration. Waste Management, 21(8):753-765.

[32]Verhulst, D., Buekens, A., Spencer, P.J., et al., 1995. Thermodynamic behavior of metal chlorides and sulfates under the conditions of incineration furnaces. Environmental Science & Technology, 30(1):50-56.

[33]Wan, X., Wang, W., Ye, T., et al., 2006. A study on the chemical and mineralogical characterization of MSWI fly ash using a sequential extraction procedure. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 134(1-3):197-201.

[34]Wang, K.S., Chiang, K.Y., Lin, S.M., et al., 1999. Effects of chlorides on emissions of toxic compounds in waste incineration: study on partitioning characteristics of heavy metal. Chemosphere, 38(8):1833-1849.

[35]Webb, S.M., 2005. SIXpack: a graphical user interface for XAS analysis using IFEFFIT. Physica Scripta, T115:1011-1014.

[36]Xie, R., Seip, H.M., Wibetoe, G., et al., 2006. Heavy coal combustion as the dominant source of particulate pollution in Taiyuan, China, corroborated by high concentrations of arsenic and selenium in PM10. Science of the Total Environment, 370(2-3):409-415.

[37]Yu, J., Sun, L., Xiang, J., et al., 2012. Vaporization of heavy metals during thermal treatment of model solid waste in a fluidized bed incinerator. Chemosphere, 86(11):1122-1126.

[38]Yuan, C.G., 2009. Leaching characteristics of metals in fly ash from coal-fired power plant by sequential extraction procedure. Microchimica Acta, 165(1-2):91-96.

[39]Zhu, Y.J., Olson, N., Beebe, T.P., 2001. Surface chemical characterization of 2.5-μm particulates (PM2.5) from air pollution in Salt Lake City using TOF-SIMS, XPS, and FTIR. Environmental Science & Technology, 35(15):3113-3121.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion

<1>

Please provide your name, email address and a comment





Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2022 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE