Full Text:   <1678>

Summary:  <1380>

CLC number: TH112

On-line Access: 2016-11-03

Received: 2015-07-09

Revision Accepted: 2016-05-13

Crosschecked: 2016-10-10

Cited: 0

Clicked: 2793

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714


Qing-ying Qiu


Yu-xuan Qi


-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2016 Vol.17 No.11 P.855-872


Framework of mechanical symmetry breaking theory and its application to innovative design

Author(s):  Qing-ying Qiu, Shao-jian Wang, Pei-en Feng, Yu-xuan Qi, Li-xin Li

Affiliation(s):  State Key Lab of CAD&CG, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China

Corresponding email(s):   qiyvxuan@163.com

Key Words:  Mechanical symmetry breaking, Concept system, Design principle, Design method and process, Innovative instance

Qing-ying Qiu, Shao-jian Wang, Pei-en Feng, Yu-xuan Qi, Li-xin Li. Framework of mechanical symmetry breaking theory and its application to innovative design[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2016, 17(11): 855-872.

@article{title="Framework of mechanical symmetry breaking theory and its application to innovative design",
author="Qing-ying Qiu, Shao-jian Wang, Pei-en Feng, Yu-xuan Qi, Li-xin Li",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Framework of mechanical symmetry breaking theory and its application to innovative design
%A Qing-ying Qiu
%A Shao-jian Wang
%A Pei-en Feng
%A Yu-xuan Qi
%A Li-xin Li
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 17
%N 11
%P 855-872
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2016
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A1500199

T1 - Framework of mechanical symmetry breaking theory and its application to innovative design
A1 - Qing-ying Qiu
A1 - Shao-jian Wang
A1 - Pei-en Feng
A1 - Yu-xuan Qi
A1 - Li-xin Li
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 17
IS - 11
SP - 855
EP - 872
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2016
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A1500199

Symmetry breaking phenomena exist in many mechanical products. Based on an analysis of the variation in physical features in several design examples, mechanical symmetry breaking concept systems that consist of general requirements, working principles, and cross-scale mechanical structures are established from the macro to micro levels and in both machine assembly and the design of parts. The connection between symmetry breaking and product requirements is systematically studied. Eight design principles using symmetry breaking to achieve mechanical functions, performance, and constraints are proposed. The method and process of applying symmetry breaking in mechanical concept design are described. These principles, method, and process are then used in the concept design of a gear chain. With symmetry breaking characters, the transmission stability of the newly innovated gear chain is greatly improved, compared with traditional ones.

This paper attempts to develop a design theory about the symmetry-breaking phenomena in mechanical systems. The research in itself is novel, interesting and useful.


创新点:1. 创建机械对称破缺的概念和分类体系。2. 揭示对称破缺与产品需求之间的关联性,提出应用对称破缺实现机械功能、性能和约束需求的8个设计原理。3. 发明一种具有对称破缺特征的链传动结构新方案,且其传动平稳性显著优于现有链传动。
方法:1. 分析和借鉴生物学、材料结构学和建筑学等多学科中对称破缺的研究和应用成果。2. 分析一千多个应用对称破缺的机械实例,并从中提炼和总结对称破缺在机械中的效用和应用规律。3. 将归纳出的规律应用于对称破缺创新机械的实践。
结论:1. 对称破缺普遍存在于机械中,并起着不可或缺的作用。2. 通过对大量机械实例中对称破缺所起作用的系统分析能够获取对称破缺作用于机械的规律性知识。3. 应用上述规律性知识能实现机械产品的创新。


Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]Angelo, L.G., Stefano, P.D., 2013. Bilateral symmetry esti-mation of human face. International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 7(4):217-225.

[2]Boothroyd, G., 2009. Assembly Automation and Product Design. Translated by Xiong, Y.J., Shan, C.W., Lou, W.Z., China Machine Press, Beijing, China (in Chinese).

[3]Breton, C., Bartolome, J., Benito, J.A., et al., 2000. Influence of machine symmetry on reduction of cogging torque in permanent-magnet brushless motors. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 36(5):3819-3823.

[4]Chen, S.Z., Wu, Y.F., 2003. Error-proofing’s philosophies and application. The First Asian Network for Quality Congress and the 17th Asia Quality Symposium, Beijing, China, p.669-675.

[5]Ding, X., 2012. Surface Induction Hardening Apparatus Used for V-type Crossing Pin Roller Rail. China Patent CN201210048392.X (in Chinese).

[6]Dong, Z.G., Ni, P.G., Zhu, J., et al., 2012. Transparency window for the absorptive dipole resonance in a symmetry-reduced grating structure. Optics Express, 20(7):7206-7211.

[7]Friedman, M., 2008. The evolutionary origin of flatfish asymmetry. Nature, 454(7201):209-212.

[8]Ge, X.K., Zhao, Q.X., Shao, H., et al., 2011. Research on slenderness structure vibration induced by detouring flow symmetry breaking–taking the accident of Tacoma narrow bridge damage caused by wind vibration as an example. Journal of Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Engineering, 31(4):430-435.

[9]Guo, X.Q., Guo, Y., Wu, G.H., 2011. A Main Bearing Apparatus of the Spindle of Wind Turbine. China Patent CN201120053260.7 (in Chinese).

[10]Hong, G.C., Liu, Y.A., 2006. A Horizontal Type Centrifugal Machine. China Patent CN200520110085.5 (in Chinese).

[11]Horgdom, G., Anthony, H.R., 2012. An Asymmetry Umbrella Having an Improving Operating Mechanism. China Patent CN201120485752.3 (in Chinese).

[12]Hou, S.Q., Xu, J.Q., 2015. Relationship among S-N curves corresponding to different mean stresses or stress ratios. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A (Applied Physics & Engineering), 16(11):885-893.

[13]Huang, G.J., 2008. Simulation Analysis of Asymmetry Tread Patterns and Study of Its Optimization Software. MS Thesis, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, China (in Chinese).

[14]Huang, Y.P., Xu, J.J., 1993. Automation Mechanism Design Illustrated Sourcebook. China Railway Press, Beijing, China (in Chinese).

[15]Lan, Y.X., Liu, Z.F., 2010. The influence of a biased piston pin on pin’s second motion. Internal Combustion Engine and Part, 1:11-13.

[16]Li, X.Z., 2006. A Radiator. China Patent CN200510103968.8 (in Chinese).

[17]Liu, L.W., 2012. A Polarized Lens Used in LED Light. China Patent CN201110324379.8 (in Chinese).

[18]Liu, T.W., 2013. Pile Body Centralizer and Rectification System. China Patent CN201310163710.1 (in Chinese).

[19]Masoumi, A., Pellicano, F., Samani, F.S., et al., 2015. Sym-metry breaking and chaos-induced imbalance in planetary gears. Nonlinear Dynamics, 80(1-2):561-582.

[20]Mi, G.Z., Pi, Z.J., 2012. A Jump Ring Used in Chain and a Chain Using the Jump Ring. China Patent CN200980159276.1 (in Chinese).

[21]Pahl, G., Beitz, W., 1992. Engineering Design. Translated by Zhang, Z.M., China Machine Press, Beijing, China (in Chinese).

[22]Pan, X.J., Song, J.J., Chen, Q.Y., et al., 2013. A Multi-level Stirrer. China Patent CN201310327951 (in Chinese).

[23]Rajasri, I., Gupta, A., Rao, Y.V.D., 2014. Symmetry and its effects on structures of planetary gear trains. Journal of the Institution of Engineers (India): Series C, 95(1):77-81.

[24]Saxena, L.P., 2015. Natural and controlled symmetry breaking analyses in biological systems. Current Science, 108(5):819-824.

[25]Silverstein, D., DeCarlo, N., Slocum, M., 2007. Insourcing Innovation: How to Achieve Competitive Excellence Using TRIZ. Auerbach Publications, New York, USA.

[26]Suh, N.P., 2004. Axiomatic Design: Advances and Application. Translated by Xie, Y.B., Yuan, X.Y., Xu, H., et al., China Machine Press, Beijing, China (in Chinese).

[27]Todd, K.B., 2011. Tension-reducing Random Sprocket. US Patent US8066602B2.

[28]Várkonyi, P., 2006. Emergence of Imperfect Symmetry in Engineering Optimisation and Evolution. PhD Thesis, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary.

[29]Wang, S.J., Qiu, Q.Y., Feng, P.E., 2013. A Chain Having Different Diameters Rollers. China Patent CN201220731409.7 (in Chinese).

[30]Wang, W.Z., Wu, Z.G., Jin, W.B., 2005. A Motor Starting Method Containing Asymmetry Gap Structure. China Patent CN200510056169.X (in Chinese).

[31]Xia, X.H., Xia, Y.H., 2012. Symmetry breaking during seeded growth of nanocrystals. Nano Letters, 12(11):6038-6042.

[32]Yang, W.B., 1998. Structure design guidelines that satisfying thermal expansion and cold-contraction. Journal of Machine Design, (11):4-5.

[33]Zhou, Y.L., Yang, J.R., Gao, G., et al., 2012. An Asymmetry Automatic Gate of Elevator. China Patent CN201220153400.2 (in Chinese).

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2022 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE