Full Text:   <517>

Summary:  <112>

CLC number: 

On-line Access: 2023-12-29

Received: 2023-02-02

Revision Accepted: 2023-05-11

Crosschecked: 2024-01-04

Cited: 0

Clicked: 532

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714


Zhi-jiang Jin


-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2023 Vol.24 No.12 P.1096-1105


Solid-liquid flow characteristics and sticking-force analysis of valve-core fitting clearance

Author(s):  Jin-yuan QIAN, Jiaxiang XU, Fengping ZHONG, Zhenhao LIN, Tingfeng HUA, Zhijiang JIN

Affiliation(s):  Institute of Process Equipment, College of Energy Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   jzj@zju.edu.cn

Key Words:  Solid-liquid flow characteristics, Valve core, Sticking force, Euler-Euler model

Jin-yuan QIAN, Jiaxiang XU, Fengping ZHONG, Zhenhao LIN, Tingfeng HUA, Zhijiang JIN. Solid-liquid flow characteristics and sticking-force analysis of valve-core fitting clearance[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2023, 24(12): 1096-1105.

@article{title="Solid-liquid flow characteristics and sticking-force analysis of valve-core fitting clearance",
author="Jin-yuan QIAN, Jiaxiang XU, Fengping ZHONG, Zhenhao LIN, Tingfeng HUA, Zhijiang JIN",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Solid-liquid flow characteristics and sticking-force analysis of valve-core fitting clearance
%A Jin-yuan QIAN
%A Jiaxiang XU
%A Fengping ZHONG
%A Zhenhao LIN
%A Tingfeng HUA
%A Zhijiang JIN
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 24
%N 12
%P 1096-1105
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2023
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A2300061

T1 - Solid-liquid flow characteristics and sticking-force analysis of valve-core fitting clearance
A1 - Jin-yuan QIAN
A1 - Jiaxiang XU
A1 - Fengping ZHONG
A1 - Zhenhao LIN
A1 - Tingfeng HUA
A1 - Zhijiang JIN
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 24
IS - 12
SP - 1096
EP - 1105
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2023
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A2300061

External contamination particles or wear particles corroded by a valve body are mixed into the fluid. As a result, when the fluid enters the fitting clearance of the valve core, it can cause an increase in resistance and lead to sticking failure of the valve core. This paper analyzes solid-liquid flow characteristics in fitting clearances and valve-core sticking based on the euler-Euler model, using a typical hydraulic valve as an example. The impact of particle concentration and diameter on flow characteristics and valve-core sticking force was analyzed. The highest volume fraction of particles was in the pressure-equalizing groove (PEG), with peak values increasing as the particle diameter increased. The sticking force increased with increasing particle concentration. When the particle diameter was 12 μm, the sticking force was the largest, making this the sensitive particle diameter. Particle distribution and valve-core sticking force were compared for oval, rectangular, and triangular PEGs. The fluid-deflection angles in oval and rectangular PEGs were larger, and their values were 32.83° and 39.15°, respectively. The fluid-deflection angle in the triangular PEG was relatively small, less than 50% that of the oval or rectangular PEGs. The particle-volume-fraction peaks in oval, rectangular, and triangular PEGs were 0.0317, 0.0316, and 0.0312, respectively. The sticking forces of oval, rectangular, and triangular PEGs were 4.796, 4.802, and 4.757 N, respectively when the particle diameter was 12 μm. This work provides a reference for design and research aimed at reducing valve-core sticking.


结论:1.颗粒在均压槽中的体积分数最高,并且峰值也随着颗粒直径的增大而增大,卡滞力随着颗粒浓度的增加而增加。2.随着颗粒直径的增大,卡滞力先增大后减小,当颗粒直径为12 μm时,卡滞力最大,为敏感颗粒直径。3.椭圆形和矩形均压槽中的流体偏转角较大,分别为32.83°和39.15°;三角形均压槽中的流体偏转角相对较小,是椭圆形或矩形均压槽的50%左右;矩形均压槽中的颗粒体积分数最高,椭圆形均压槽中次之,三角形均压槽中最低,其峰值分别为0.0317、0.0316和0.0312;当颗粒直径为12 μm时,椭圆形、矩形和三角形均压槽的卡滞力分别为4.796、4.802和4.757 N。因此,在阀芯上选择一个流体偏转角小、底部储存污染颗粒能力强的三角形均压槽,有利于缓解阀芯卡滞现象。


Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]BeuneA, KuertenJGM, van HeumenMPC, 2012. CFD analysis with fluid-structure interaction of opening high-pressure safety valves. Computers & Fluids, 64:‍108-116.

[2]BrazhenkoVN, MochalinEV, CaiJC, 2020. Mechanical admixture influence in the working fluid on wear and jamming of spool pairs from aircraft hydraulic drives. Journal of Friction and Wear, 41(6):526-530.

[3]ChenQP, JiH, XingHH, et al., 2021. Experimental study on thermal deformation and clamping force characteristics of hydraulic spool valve. Engineering Failure Analysis, 129:105698.

[4]ChenXM, HongJI, YangXB, et al., 2018. The numerical research on spool sticking induced by radial thermal deformation. Machine Tool & Hydraulics, 46(6):67-74.

[5]de Almeida MoreiraBR, CruzVH, CunhaMLO, et al., 2021. Valorization of semi-solid by-product from distillation of cellulosic ethanol into blends for heating and power. Waste Disposal & Sustainable Energy, 3(1):49-61.

[6]DongJ, DengYP, CaoWB, et al., 2022. Wear failure analysis of suction valve for high pressure and large flow water hydraulic plunger pump. Engineering Failure Analysis, 134:106095.

[7]DuanSZ, NielsenT, 2007. Modeling and analysis of spool valves with eccentric clearance. ASME/JSME 5th Joint Fluids Engineering Conference, p.1029-1034.

[8]FanS, XuR, JiH, et al., 2019. Experimental investigation on contaminated friction of hydraulic spool valve. Applied Sciences, 9(23):5230.

[9]FitchEC, 1984. Fluid contamination control, part 2: analysis of contaminant in fluid systems. Chinese Hydraulics & Pneumatics, 4:44-47 (in Chinese).

[10]GuatemalaGM, SantoyoF, VirgenL, et al., 2012. Hydrodynamic model for the flow of granular solids in the S-valve. Powder Technology, 230:77-85.

[11]HongSH, KimKW, 2016. A new type groove for hydraulic spool valve. Tribology International, 103:629-640.

[12]IyengarSKR, 1976. Effect of Particulate-Contaminants on Break-out and Actuating for Forces in Spoll Valves‍–‍a Case Study. The BFPR Annual Report, 10:7.

[13]LinZ, SunXW, YuTC, et al., 2020. Gas‍–‍solid two-phase flow and erosion calculation of gate valve based on the CFD-DEM model. Powder Technology, 366:395-407.

[14]LinZH, HouCW, ZhangL, et al., 2023. Fluid-structure interaction analysis on vibration characteristics of sleeve control valve. Annals of Nuclear Energy, 181:109579.

[15]LisowskiE, FiloG, RajdaJ, 2018. Analysis of flow forces in the initial phase of throttle gap opening in a proportional control valve. Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 59:157-167.

[16]LiuXQ, JiH, MinW, et al., 2020. Erosion behavior and influence of solid particles in hydraulic spool valve without notches. Engineering Failure Analysis, 108:104262.

[17]LiuYS, DongJ, WuS, et al., 2019. Theoretical research on the dynamic characteristics of electrohydraulic servo valve (EHSV) in deep sea environment. Ocean Engineering, 192:105957.

[18]LuL, XuYP, LiMR, et al., 2022. Analysis of fretting wear behavior of unloading valve of gasoline direct injection high pressure pump. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A (Applied Physics & Engineering), 23(4):314-328.

[19]LuQQ, TiainenJ, Kiani-OshtorjaniM, et al., 2020. Radial flow force at the annular orifice of a two-dimensional hydraulic servo valve. IEEE Access, 8:207938-207946.

[20]LuQQ, TiainenJ, Kiani-OshtorjaniM, et al., 2021. Lateral force acting on the sliding spool of control valve due to radial flow force and static pressure. IEEE Access, 9:126658-126669.

[21]NatarajanGP, KimSJ, KimCW, 2017. Analysis of membrane behavior of a normally closed microvalve using a fluid-structure interaction model. Micromachines, 8(12):355.

[22]QianJY, MuJ, HouCW, et al., 2021. A parametric study on unbalanced moment of piston type valve core. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A (Applied Physics & Engineering), 22(4):265-276.

[23]San AndresL, 2006. Annular pressure seals and hydrostatic bearings. Educational Notes RTO-EN-AVT-143, Paper 11.

[24]ShiJY, 2014. Study on flow rate and steady flow force of hydraulic combination valve based on CFD. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 477-478:173-176.

[25]SiglochH, 2014. Technische Fluidmechanik. 9th Edition. Springer, Berlin, Germany.

[26]van WachemBGM, AlmstedtAE, 2003. Methods for multiphase computational fluid dynamics. Chemical Engineering Journal, 96(1-3):81-98.

[27]WuJY, YueY, LiZB, et al., 2021. Modal and structural analysis on a main feed water regulating valve under different loading conditions. Annals of Nuclear Energy, 159:108309.

[28]XuLP, MaHY, RenDZ, 2019. Numerical simulation for multi-way valves and fit clearance research based on heat-fluid-solid coupling. The Journal of Engineering, 2019(13):247-252.

[29]YanJJ, KeJ, LiuHL, et al., 2013. The influence of the material properties on the hydraulic spool valve’s viscous temperature rise. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 365-366:277-280.

[30]YangPR, RodkiewiczCM, 1996. Time-dependent TEHL solution to centrally supported tilting pad bearings subjected to harmonic vibration. Tribology International, 29(5):433-443.

[31]YeD, WangXX, WangRX, et al., 2021. Optimizing flow field in an SCR system of a 600 MW power plant: effects of static mixer alignment style. Waste Disposal & Sustainable Energy, 3(4):339-346.

[32]YuLJ, YangXH, ZhangZX, et al., 2023. Parametric analysis on throttling elements of conical throttling valve for hydrogen decompression in hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Journal of Energy Storage, 65:107342.

[33]ZengQL, CuiJ, ZhaoWM, 2012. Simulation analysis for hydraulic clamping force of bidirectional hydraulic lock’ valve spool based on fluent. Advanced Materials Research, 542-543:1091-1095. https://doi.‍org/10.4028/www.‍scientific.‍net/AMR.‍542-543.1091

[34]ZhangY, ZhuJG, LyuQG, et al., 2021. Experimental study on the partial preheating combustion characteristic of Yankuang coal sludge. Waste Disposal & Sustainable Energy, 3(3):219-225.

[35]ZhaoJH, ZhouSL, LuXH, et al., 2015. Numerical simulation and experimental study of heat-fluid-solid coupling of double flapper-nozzle servo valve. Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 28(5):1030-1038.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2024 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE