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Received: 2021-11-18

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Bio-Design and Manufacturing  2022 Vol.5 No.1 P.107-132

http://doi.org/10.1007/s42242-021-00135-6


The emerging technology of biohybrid micro-robots: a review


Author(s):  Zening Lin, Tao Jiang & Jianzhong Shang

Affiliation(s):  Department of Intelligent Machinery and Instrument, College of Intelligence Science and Technology, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, 410073, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   jiangtao@nudt.edu.cn, jz_shang_nudt@163.com

Key Words:  Biohybrid robots, Living cells, Actuator materials, Structure, Control methodologies


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Zening Lin, Tao Jiang & Jianzhong Shang . The emerging technology of biohybrid micro-robots: a review[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science D, 2022, 5(1): 107-132.

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Abstract: 
In the past few decades, robotics research has witnessed an increasingly high interest in miniaturized, intelligent, and integrated robots. The imperative component of a robot is the actuator that determines its performance. Although traditional rigid drives such as motors and gas engines have shown great prevalence in most macroscale circumstances, the reduction of these drives to the millimeter or even lower scale results in a significant increase in manufacturing difficulty accompanied by a remarkable performance decline. biohybrid robots driven by living cells can be a potential solution to overcome these drawbacks by benefiting from the intrinsic microscale self-assembly of living tissues and high energy efficiency, which, among other unprecedented properties, also feature flexibility, self-repair, and even multiple degrees of freedom. This paper systematically reviews the development of biohybrid robots. First, the development of biological flexible drivers is introduced while emphasizing on their advantages over traditional drivers. Second, up-to-date works regarding biohybrid robots are reviewed in detail from three aspects: biological driving sources, actuator materials, and structures with associated control methodologies. Finally, the potential future applications and major challenges of biohybrid robots are explored.

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