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Zhe-ming Tong


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Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2021 Vol.22 No.4 P.245-264


Development of electric construction machinery in China: a review of key technologies and future directions

Author(s):  Zhe-ming Tong, Jia-zhi Miao, Yuan-song Li, Shui-guang Tong, Qian Zhang, Gui-rong Tan

Affiliation(s):  State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and Mechatronic Systems, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   tzm@zju.edu.cn, cetongsg@zju.edu.cn

Key Words:  Construction machinery (CM), Electric drive system, Battery management system (BMS), Energy recovery, Electrification

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Zhe-ming Tong, Jia-zhi Miao, Yuan-song Li, Shui-guang Tong, Qian Zhang, Gui-rong Tan. Development of electric construction machinery in China: a review of key technologies and future directions[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2021, 22(4): 245-264.

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The issues of energy shortage and environmental pollution have accelerated the electrification of construction machinery (CM) industry globally. In China, the amount of electric construction machinery (ECM) has been growing across the industry. The sales of ECM are estimated to reach 600 000 vehicles by the end of 2025, while the total demand for battery power will reach 60 GWh. However, the development of ECM still faces critical challenges including reliable power supply and energy distribution among various components. In this review, we primarily focus on important technological breakthroughs and the difficulties faced by the CM industry in China. An overview of ECM including classification and characteristics is given at the beginning. Next, the selection of key components such as the electric motor and the energy storage units, and the control strategy in the pure electric drive system are discussed. The characteristics of the hybrid electric drive system such as structure design and power matching are analyzed in detail. The battery management system (BMS) is critical to ensure appropriate battery health for reliable power supply. Here, we extensively review technical developments in various BMSs. In addition, we roughly estimate the national total of CM emissions and the potential environmental benefits of employing ECMs in China. Finally, we set out future research directions and industrial development of ECM.


概要:能源短缺和环境污染问题加速了全球工程机械行业的电气化进程.在中国,整个行业内的电动工程机械数量一直在快速增长.在未来5年内,电动工程机械的销量预计达到六十万辆,对电池的整体需求将达到60 GWh.然而,工程机械电气化发展仍然面临着严峻挑战,其中包括可靠的电力供应和组件间能源分配问题.本文主要讨论了中国工程机械产业中的重大技术突破和面临的挑战.首先概述了电动工程机械的分类及其特点.其次,讨论了纯电驱动系统中电动机、储能单元等关键部件的选型及控制策略.详细分析了混合动力驱动系统的结构设计和动力匹配等技术特性.电池管理系统(BMS)对于确保电池处于适当的健康状态并提供稳定的能源具有十分重要的意义.在这里,我们广泛地总结了电池管理系统的发展进程.此外,我们大致估算了中国工程机械的总排放量以及采用电动工程机械所带来的潜在的环境效益.最后,阐述了电动工程机械的未来研究方向和产业化发展前景.

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