Full Text:   <1364>

Summary:  <1129>

CLC number: TP393

On-line Access: 2019-12-10

Received: 2019-02-26

Revision Accepted: 2019-04-07

Crosschecked: 2019-10-14

Cited: 0

Clicked: 2996

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714


Bo Yuan


De-ji Chen


-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering  2019 Vol.20 No.11 P.1457-1464


Conceptual model of real-time IoT systems

Author(s):  Bo Yuan, De-ji Chen, Dong-mei Xu, Ming Chen

Affiliation(s):  Department of Computer Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   yuanbo@tongji.edu.cn, dejichen@tongji.edu.cn

Key Words:  Internet of Things (IoT), Real-time system, Conceptual model, View, Hard/Soft real-time

Share this article to: More |Next Article >>>

Bo Yuan, De-ji Chen, Dong-mei Xu, Ming Chen. Conceptual model of real-time IoT systems[J]. Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering, 2019, 20(11): 1457-1464.

@article{title="Conceptual model of real-time IoT systems",
author="Bo Yuan, De-ji Chen, Dong-mei Xu, Ming Chen",
journal="Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Conceptual model of real-time IoT systems
%A Bo Yuan
%A De-ji Chen
%A Dong-mei Xu
%A Ming Chen
%J Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering
%V 20
%N 11
%P 1457-1464
%@ 2095-9184
%D 2019
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/FITEE.1900115

T1 - Conceptual model of real-time IoT systems
A1 - Bo Yuan
A1 - De-ji Chen
A1 - Dong-mei Xu
A1 - Ming Chen
J0 - Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering
VL - 20
IS - 11
SP - 1457
EP - 1464
%@ 2095-9184
Y1 - 2019
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/FITEE.1900115

We address a special kind of internet of Things (IoT) systems that are also real-time. We call them real-time IoT (RT- IoT) systems. An RT-IoT system needs to meet timing constraints of system delay, clock synchronization, deadline, and so on. The timing constraints turn to be more stringent as we get closer to the physical things. Based on the reference architecture of IoT (ISO/IEC 30141), the RT-IoT conceptual model is established. The idea of edge subsystem is introduced. The sensing & controlling domain is the basis of the edge subsystem, and the edge subsystem usually must meet the hard real-time constraints. The model includes four perspectives, the time view, computation view, communication view, and control view. Each view looks, from a different angle, at how the time parameters impact an RT-IoT system.


摘要:本文介绍一种特殊物联网系统,这种系统同时也是实时系统。我们称之为"实时物联网系统"。实时物联网系统需满足系统延迟、时钟同步、截止时间等时间约束。系统中越接近物理世界的部分,其时间限制越严格。基于物联网参考体系结构(ISO/IEC 30141)建立实时物联网概念模型,并引入"边缘子系统"概念。感知控制域是边缘子系统的基础。边缘子系统通常需满足硬实时约束。该模型包含4种视图,即时间视图、计算视图、通信视图和控制视图。每个视图从不同角度介绍时间参数如何影响实时物联网系统。


Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]Abdelsamea MHA, Zorkany M, Abdelkader N, 2016. Real time operating systems for the Internet of Things, vision, architecture and research directions. World Symp on Computer Applications & Research, p.72-77.

[2]Bello O, Zeadally S, 2016. Intelligent device-to-device communication in the Internet of Things. IEEE Syst J, 10(3): 1172-1182.

[3]Buttazzo GC, 2008. Hard Real-Time Computing Systems: Predictable Scheduling Algorithms and Applications. Springer Publishing Company, New York.

[4]Catarinucci L, de Donno D, Mainetti L, et al., 2015. An IoT- aware architecture for smart healthcare systems. IEEE Int Things J, 2(6):515-526.

[5]Davis RI, 2014. A review of fixed priority and EDF scheduling for hard real-time uniprocessor systems. SIGBED Rev, 11(1):8-19.

[6]Gao ZG, Lu HJ, 2012. Research on schedulability analysis for hard real-time systems in Internet of Things. Telecommun Sci, 28(1):92-97 (in Chinese).

[7]Hossain MS, Muhammad G, 2016. Cloud-assisted industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)-enabled framework for health monitoring. Comput Netw, 101:192-202.

[8]ISO/IEC, 2018. Internet of Things (IoT)―Reference Architecture. ISO/IEC 30141:2018. National Standards of America.

[9]Jin HK, 2017. A review of cyber-physical system research relevant to the emerging IT trends: Industry 4.0, IoT, big data, and cloud computing. J Ind Integr Manag, 2(3): 1750011.

[10]Jung H, Lee IH, 2017. Performance analysis of three- dimensional clustered device-to-device networks for Internet of Things. Wirel Commun Mob Comput, 2017: 9628565.

[11]Kim YK, Sang HS, 1995. Predictability and consistency in real-time database systems. In: Son SH (Ed.), Advances in Real-Time Systems. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA.

[12]Li L, Li SC, Zhao SS, 2014. QoS-aware scheduling of services-oriented Internet of Things. IEEE Trans Ind Inform, 10(2):1497-1505.

[13]Li SC, Xu LD, Zhao SS, 2018. 5G Internet of Things: a survey. J Ind Inform Integr, 10:1-9.

[14]Lin F, Shu SL, 2010. A review on cyber-physical systems. J Tongji Univ, 38(8):1243-1248 (in Chinese).

[15]Lindberg M, Arzen KE, 2010. Feedback control of cyber- physical systems with multi resource dependencies and model uncertainties. 31st IEEE Real-Time Systems Symp, p.85-94.

[16]Liu CL, Layland JW, 1973. Scheduling algorithms for multiprogramming in a hard-real-time environment. J ACM, 20(1):46-61.

[17]Lu Y, 2017. Cyber physical system (CPS)-based Industry 4.0: a survey. J Ind Integr Manag, 2(3):1750014.

[18]Mok AK, 1983. Fundamental Design Problems of Distributed Systems for the Hard-Real-Time Environment. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

[19]Palattella MR, Accettura N, Grieco LA, et al., 2013. On optimal scheduling in duty-cycled industrial IoT applications using IEEE802.15.4e TSCH. IEEE Sens J, 13(10):3655- 3666.

[20]Richardson M, Watteyne T, Thubert P, et al., 1997. IPv6 over the TSCH Mode of IEEE 802.15.4e. https://www.ietf.org/ proceedings/95/slides/slides-95-6tisch-0.pdf

[21]Salman N, Rasool I, Kemp AH, 2010. Overview of the IEEE 802.15.4 standards family for low rate wireless personal area networks. 7th Int Symp on Wireless Communication Systems, p.701-705.

[22]Tao F, Zuo Y, Xu LD, et al., 2014. Internet of Things and bom-based life cycle assessment of energy-saving and emission-reduction of products. IEEE Trans Ind Inform, 10(2):1252-1261.

[23]Thubert P, Watteyne T, Palattella MR, et al., 2013. IETF 6TSCH: combining IPv6 connectivity with industrial performance. Proc 7th Int Conf on Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous Computing, p.541-546.

[24]Xu J, Andrepoulos Y, Xiao YZ, et al., 2014. Non-stationary resource allocation policies for delay-constrained video streaming: application to video over Internet-of-Things- enabled networks. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun, 32(4): 782-794.

[25]Xu LD, He W, Li SC, 2014. Internet of Things in industries: a survey. IEEE Trans Ind Inform, 10(4):2233-2243.

[26]Zhang YF, Zhang G, Wang JQ, et al., 2015. Real-time information capturing and integration framework of the Internet of Manufacturing Things. Int J Comput Integr Manuf, 28(8):811-822.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2022 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE