Full Text:   <2879>

CLC number: O59

On-line Access: 

Received: 2007-01-20

Revision Accepted: 2007-03-01

Crosschecked: 0000-00-00

Cited: 2

Clicked: 4776

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2007 Vol.8 No.7 P.1065-1076


Studying creation of bulk elementary excitation by heaters in superfluid helium-II at low temperatures

Author(s):  ZAKHARENKO A. A.

Affiliation(s):  International Institute of Zakharenko Waves, Krasnoyarsk 660037, Russia

Corresponding email(s):   aazaaz@inbox.ru

Key Words:  Superfluid helium-II, Bulk elementary excitations (BEEs), Low temperatures, Cooper pairing phenomenon, Non-dispersive Zakharenko waves

ZAKHARENKO A. A.. Studying creation of bulk elementary excitation by heaters in superfluid helium-II at low temperatures[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2007, 8(7): 1065-1076.

@article{title="Studying creation of bulk elementary excitation by heaters in superfluid helium-II at low temperatures",
author="ZAKHARENKO A. A.",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Studying creation of bulk elementary excitation by heaters in superfluid helium-II at low temperatures
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 8
%N 7
%P 1065-1076
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2007
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.2007.A1065

T1 - Studying creation of bulk elementary excitation by heaters in superfluid helium-II at low temperatures
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 8
IS - 7
SP - 1065
EP - 1076
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2007
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.2007.A1065

In this paper, the obtained experimental results concerning creation of bulk elementary excitations (BEEs) in isotopically pure liquid 4He at low temperatures ~60 mK are discussed. Positive rotons’ (R+-rotons) creation by a pulsed heater was studied. Signals were recorded for the following quantum processes: quantum evaporation of 4He-atoms from the free liquid-helium surface by the BEEs of the liquid helium-II, and BEEs reflection from the free surface back into the bulk liquid. Typical signals are shown, and ratios of signal amplitudes are evaluated. For long heater pulses from 5 to 10 μs, appearance of the second atomic cloud consisting of evaporated 4He-atoms was observed in addition to the first atomic cloud. It is thought that the first atomic cloud of the evaporated helium atoms consists of very fast 4He-atoms with energies ~35 K evaporated by positive rotons with the special energies ~17 K (~2ER~2×8.6 K with ER representing the roton minimum energy) corresponding to the third non-dispersive Zakharenko wave. The second cloud of slower 4He-atoms was created by surface elementary excitations (SEEs or ripplons) possessing the special energies ~7.15 K representing the binding energy. It was assumed that such SEEs can be created by phonons incoming to the liquid surface with special energies ~6.2 K corresponding to the first non-dispersive Zakharenko wave, which can interact at the liquid surface with the same phonons already reflected from the surface for long heater pulses. Also, some pulsed-heater characteristics were studied in order to better understand the features of such heaters in low temperature experiments.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1] Betts, D.S., 1989. An Introduction to Millikelvin Technology. Cambridge University Press, England.

[2] Brown, M.G., 1990. The Boundary Conditions for Quantum Evaporation in Liquid 4He. Ph.D Thesis, University of Exeter, England, UK.

[3] Brown, M., Wyatt, A.F.G., 2003. Quantum condensation of liquid 4He. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 15(27):4717-4738.

[4] Dalfovo, F., Fracchetti, A., Lastri, A., Pitaevskii, L., Stringari, S., 1995a. Rotons and quantum evaporation from superfluid 4He. Physical Review Letters, 75(13):2510-2513.

[5] Dalfovo, F., Lastri, A., Pricaupenko, L., Stringari, S., Treiner, J., 1995b. Structural and dynamic properties of superfluid helium: A density-functional approach. Physical Review B, 52(2):1193-1209.

[6] Forbes, A.C., Wyatt, A.F.G., 1990. A direct comparison of the scattering of phonons and rotons from rotons in superfluid 4He. Physica B: Condensed Matter, 165-166(1):497-498.

[7] Glyde, H.R., Griffin, A., 1990. Zero sound and atomic-like excitations: The nature of phonons and rotons in liquid 4He. Physical Review Letters, 65(12):1454-1457.

[8] Landau, L.D., 1941. The theory of superfluidity of helium-II. Journal of Physics (Moscow), 5(1):71-90.

[9] Lardat, C., Maerfeld, C., Tournois, P., 1971. Theory and performance of acoustical dispersive surface wave delay lines. Proceedings of the IEEE, 59(3):355-368.

[10] Lounasmaa, O.V., 1974. Experimental Principles and Methods Below 1 K. Academic Press, England.

[11] Stirling, W.G., 1983. Precision Measurement of the Phonon Dispersion Relation in Superfluid 4He. Proceedings of the 75th Jubilee Conference on 4He, World Scientific, Singapore, p.109 and Private Communication.

[12] Stirling, W.G., 1985. New High-resolution Neutron Scattering Investigations of Excitations in Liquid Helium-4. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Phonon Physics, Budapest, Hungary, p.829-832.

[13] Tucker, M.A.H., Wyatt, A.F.G., 1990. Time of flight of phonon-atom quantum evaporation signals. Physica B: Condensed Matter, 165-166(1):493-494.

[14] Tucker, M.A.H., Wyatt, A.F.G., 1994a. Phonons in liquid 4He from a heated metal film. I. The creation of high-frequency phonons. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 6(15):2813-2824.

[15] Tucker, M.A.H., Wyatt, A.F.G., 1994b. Phonons in liquid 4He from a heated metal film. II. The angular distribution. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 6(15):2825-2834.

[16] Tucker, M.A.H., Wyatt, A.F.G., 1994c. Double pulse phonon injection into liquid 4He. Physica B: Condensed Matter, 194-196:547-548.

[17] Tucker, M.A.H., Wyatt, A.F.G., 1994d. The spectrum of high-energy phonons injected into liquid 4He. Physica B: Condensed Matter, 194-196:549-550.

[18] Tucker, M.A.H., Wyatt, A.F.G., 1994e. Phonon beams with a narrow angular width created by gold film heater. Physica B: Condensed Matter, 194-196:551-552.

[19] Wilks, J., 1967. The Properties of Liquid and Solid Helium. The International Series of Monographs on Physics, Oxford University Press.

[20] Williams, C.D.H., Zakharenko, A.A., Wyatt, A.F.G., 2002. Narrow-angle beams of strongly interacting phonons. Journal of Low Temperature Physics, 126(1/2):591-596.

[21] Wyatt, A.F.G., Brown, M., 1990. Generating beams of high energy phonons and rotons in liquid 4He. Physica B: Condensed Matter, 165-166(1):495-496.

[22] Wyatt, A.F.G., Lockerbie, N.A., Sherlock, R.A., 1989. Propagating phonons in liquid 4He. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 1(22):3507-3522.

[23] Zakharenko, A.A., 2005a. Different Dispersive Waves of Bulk Elementary Excitations in Surperfluid Helium-II at Low Temperatures. The CD-ROM Proceedings of the Forum Acusticum, Budapest, Hungary, p.L79-L89.

[24] Zakharenko, A.A., 2005b. Dispersive Rayleigh type waves in layered systems consisting of piezoelectric crystals bismuth silicate and bismuth germinate. Acta Acustica united with Acustica, 91(4):708-715.

[25] Zakharenko, A.A., 2007. Creation of bulk elementary excitations in superfluid helium-II by helium atomic beams at low temperatures. Waves in Random and Complex Media, 17(3):255-268.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2024 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE