Full Text:   <3030>

CLC number: R788

On-line Access: 

Received: 2006-11-12

Revision Accepted: 2007-01-18

Crosschecked: 0000-00-00

Cited: 2

Clicked: 5904

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2007 Vol.8 No.5 P.296-301


Pressure from the lips and the tongue in children with class III malocclusion

Author(s):  RUAN Wen-hua, SU Ji-mei, YE Xiao-wei

Affiliation(s):  Department of Stomatology, Children’ more

Corresponding email(s):   ruanwh@hzcnc.com

Key Words:  Deciduous dentition, Perioral force, Pressure transducer, Class III malocclusion

RUAN Wen-hua, SU Ji-mei, YE Xiao-wei. Pressure from the lips and the tongue in children with class III malocclusion[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2007, 8(5): 296-301.

@article{title="Pressure from the lips and the tongue in children with class III malocclusion",
author="RUAN Wen-hua, SU Ji-mei, YE Xiao-wei",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Pressure from the lips and the tongue in children with class III malocclusion
%A RUAN Wen-hua
%A SU Ji-mei
%A YE Xiao-wei
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 8
%N 5
%P 296-301
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2007
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.2007.B0296

T1 - Pressure from the lips and the tongue in children with class III malocclusion
A1 - RUAN Wen-hua
A1 - SU Ji-mei
A1 - YE Xiao-wei
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 8
IS - 5
SP - 296
EP - 301
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2007
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.2007.B0296

Objective: To discuss possible relationships between class III malocclusion and perioral forces by measuring the pressure from the lips and the tongue of children with class III malocclusion. Methods: Thirty-one children with class III malocclusion were investigated and their perioral forces were measured at rest and during swallowing under natural head position by a custom-made miniperioral force computer measuring system. Results: The resting pressures exerted on the labial side and palatine side of the upper left incisor, as well as the labial side and lingual side of the lower left incisor, were 0 g/cm2, 0 g/cm2, 0.57 g/cm2 and 0.23 g/cm2, respectively. Correspondingly, the swallowing forces were 2.87 g/cm2, 5.97 g/cm2, 4.09 g/cm2 and 7.89 g/cm2, respectively. No statistical difference between muscular pressure and gender existed. During swallowing, the lingual forces were significantly higher than the labial forces (P<0.01), however, at rest there was no significantly different force between these two sides. Compared to the normal occlusion patients, children with class III malocclusion had lower perioral forces. The upper labial resting forces (P<0.01), the lower labial resting forces (P<0.05) and all the swallowing pressures from the lips and the tongue (P<0.01) showed statistical differences between the two different occlusion conditions. Meanwhile, no significant difference was found for the resting pressure from the tongue between class III malocclusion and normal occlusion. Conclusion: Patients with class III malocclusion have lower perioral forces and this muscle hypofunction may be secondary to the spatial relations of the jaws. The findings support the spatial matrix hypothesis.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1] Aguirre, J.I., Plotkin, L.I., Stewart, S.A., Weinstein, R.S., Parfitt, A.M., Manolagas, S.C., Bellido, T., 2006. Osteocyte apoptosis is induced by weightlessness in mice and precedes osteoclast recruitment and bone loss. J. Bone Miner. Res., 21(4):605-615.

[2] Frost, H.M., 1987. The mechanostat: a proposed pathogenic mechanism of osteoporoses and the bone mass effects of mechanical and nonmechanical agents. Bone Miner., 2(1):73-86.

[3] Jung, M.H., Yang, W.S., Nahm, D.S., 2003. Effects of upper lip closing force on craniofacial structures. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofac. Orthop., 123(1):58-63.

[4] Leitao, P., Nanda, R.S., 2000. Relationship of natural head position to craniofacial morphology. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofac. Orthop., 117(4):406-417.

[5] Li, K.F., Lin, Z., 1993. Measurement of perioral forces exerted normal occlusion of adolescence. J. Pract. Stomatol., 9(4):190-192 (in Chinese).

[6] Li, Y., Shi, B., Song, Q.G., Zuo, H., Zheng, Q., 2006. Effects of lip repair on maxillary growth and facial soft tissue development in patients with a complete unilateral cleft of lip, alveolus and palate. J. Craniomaxillofac. Surg., 34(6):355-361.

[7] Radlanski, R.J., Renz, H., 2006. Genes, forces, and forms: mechanical aspects of prenatal craniofacial development. Dev. Dyn., 235(5):1219-1229.

[8] Roberts, W.E., 2000. Bone Physiology, Metabolism, and Biomechanics in Orthodontic Practice. In: Graber, T.M., Vanarsdall, R.L.Jr (Eds.), Orthodontics: Current Principles and Techniques, 3rd Ed. Mosby, Inc., St. Louse, USA, p.225-227.

[9] Ruan, W.H., Huang, M.L., 1999. Relationship between feeding methods and deciduous teeth decay and anterior teeth crossbite. J. Zhejiang Med. Univ., 28(1):27-28, 30 (in Chinese).

[10] Ruan, W.H., Guo, Q., Gu, Z.Y., Lu, Y., 2002. The development and application of PC measuring system for the muscular pressure exerting on the deciduous dental arch. Chin. J. Dent. Mater. Devices, 11(4):192-194, 203 (in Chinese).

[11] Ruan, W.H., Chen, M.D., Gu, Z.Y., Lu, Y., Su, J.M., Guo, Q., 2005. Muscular forces exerted on the normal deciduous dentition. Angle Orthod., 75(5):785-790.

[12] Singh, G.D., 1999. Morphologic determinants in the etiology of class III malocclusions: a review. Clin. Anat., 12(5):382-405.

[13] Singh, G.D., 2004. On Growth and Treatment: the Spatial Matrix Hypothesis. In: McNamara, J.A.Jr (Ed.), Growth and Treatment: A Meeting of the Minds. Monograph 41, Craniofacial Growth Series, Ann Arbor, USA, p.197-239.

[14] Singh, G.D., McNamara, J.A.Jr, Lozanoff, S., 1998. Craniofacial heterogeneity of prepubertal Korean and European-American subjects with class III malocclusions: procrustes, EDMA and cephalometric analyses. Int. J. Adult Orthod. Orthog. Surg., 13(3):227-240.

[15] Singh, G.D., McNamara, J.A.Jr, Lozanoff, S., 1999. Allometry of the cranial base in prepubertal Korean subjects with class III malocclusions. Finite-element morphometry. Angle Orthod., 69(5):507-514.

[16] Singh, G.D., Rivera-Robles, J., de Jesus-Vinas, J., 2004. Longitudinal craniofacial growth patterns in patients with orofacial clefts: geometric morphometrics. The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 41(2):136-143.

[17] Sinsel, N.K., Opdebeeck, H., Guelinckx, P.J., 1998. The effect of unilateral partial facial paralysis and muscle ablation on craniofacial growth and development: an experimental study in the rabbit. Plast. Reconstr. Surg., 102(6):1894-1912.

[18] Sinsel, N.K., Guelinckx, P.J., Opdebeeck, H., 1999. The effect of unilateral partial facial paralysis on nasofrontal suture growth: an experimental study in the rabbit. Plast. Reconstr. Surg., 103(7):1887-1892.

[19] Takahashi, S., Ono, T., Ishiwata, Y., Kuroda, T., 1999. Effect of changes in the breathing mode and body position on tongue pressure with respiratory-related oscillations. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofac. Orthop., 115(3):239-246.

[20] Thüer, U., Ingervall, B., 1986. Pressure from the lips on the teeth and malocclusion. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofac. Orthop., 90(3):234-242.

[21] Thüer, U., Sieber, R., Ingervall, B., 1999. Cheek and tongue pressures in the molar areas and the atmospheric pressure in the palatal vault in young adults. Eur. J. Orthod., 21(3):299-309.

[22] van Vuuren, C., 1991. A review of the literature on the prevalence of class III malocclusion and mandibular prognathic growth hypotheses. Aust. Orthod. J., 12(1):23-28.

[23] Yuan, H., Fu, M.K., 1998. Normal occlusion’s perioral forces. Chin. J. Stomatol., 33(1):30-32 (in Chinese).

[24] Zhou, Y.H., Fu, M.K., 1995. Swallowing pattern in skeletal class III malocclusion. Chin. J. Stomatol., 30(6):355-358, 384 (in Chinese).

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2024 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE