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CLC number: P43

On-line Access: 2016-03-07

Received: 2015-06-23

Revision Accepted: 2015-10-29

Crosschecked: 2016-02-19

Cited: 2

Clicked: 3374

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

 ORCID:

Manuela Sauer

http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9484-4743

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Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2016 Vol.17 No.3 P.171-185

http://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.A1500186


On the identification of weather avoidance routes in the terminal maneuvering area of Hong Kong International Airport


Author(s):  Manuela Sauer, Thomas Hauf, Ludmila Sakiew, Pak Wai Chan, Shuk-Mei Tse, Patrick Hupe

Affiliation(s):  Institute of Meteorology and Climatology, Leibniz; more

Corresponding email(s):   sauer@muk.uni-hannover.de

Key Words:  Thunderstorm avoidance, Terminal maneuvering area, Hong Kong, Horizontal circumnavigation, Collaborative decision making


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Manuela Sauer, Thomas Hauf, Ludmila Sakiew, Pak Wai Chan, Shuk-Mei Tse, Patrick Hupe. On the identification of weather avoidance routes in the terminal maneuvering area of Hong Kong International Airport[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2016, 17(3): 171-185.

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Abstract: 
The safety and efficiency of air traffic are significantly affected by adverse weather. This holds especially in terminal maneuvering areas () where, in addition to the impact of weather itself, potential weather avoidance routes are strongly restricted by air traffic regulations. A weather avoidance model DIVMET has been developed which proposes a route through a field of developing thunderstorms. Air traffic control regulations have not been included in it at this stage. DIVMET was applied to the of hong Kong International Airport as air traffic control (ATC) there has become interested in improving the controller’s work load, especially for managing incoming traffic by avoidance route simulations. Although visual inspection of simulated avoidance routes by ATC was satisfactory, a quantitative validation of simulated with real observed routes was also carried out. Two real adverse weather situations with thunderstorms within the of hong Kong and with heavily distorted traffic were chosen. The main objective prior to any validation, however, was to identify routes which are solely impacted by weather but do not show any signs of regulation. Route selection was done on the base of flight position data. Landing flights were selected and deviations from standard approach routes were analyzed. As a result, the majority of 272 flights were found to be affected by both weather and regulations (60%), highlighting the challenge for air traffic controllers to manage landing traffic under adverse weather conditions safely and efficiently. Only a few weather-affected flights (7%) were not regulated and could be used for validation. DIVMET simulation routes were presented to local air traffic controllers who confirmed them as potential and realistic avoidance routes. DIVMET weather avoidance route simulations within a appear to be helpful but further model development has to incorporate traffic regulations, to include holdings, short-cuts, and slow-downs.

This paper has been well written to bring up the importance of weather information to minimize the delay of aircraft arrivals especially near HKIA. It is very well organized to understand how the study has been done. This paper tries to focus on how the adverse weather can give an impact to operate and manage the schedule of aircraft arrivals to HKIA as well as how this impact can be reduced by updating the optimized flight trajectory to pilot. To do that, the DEVMET model is adapted to integrate the radar reflectivity information dynamically into the aircraft maneuvering or trajectory modeling procedures. I think that the reader can easily see the motivation, background, some histories for this study in the introduction section. And, the pin-point of the results has been well resolved in the table 1 with the combinations of several figures for case study.

论香港国际机场起飞着陆滑行区域气象回避路线的识别

概要:空中交通的安全和效率明显受恶劣天气的影响,在机场起飞着陆滑行区域(TMA)尤其如此。在此区域,除了受天气影响之外,潜在的气象回避路线还受到空中交通管制的严格限制。因此气象回避模型DIVMET被开发出来。该模型给出一条建议路线,可以通过正在形成雷暴但尚未在里面实施任何空中交通管制的场地。DIVMET被应用到香港国际机场的TMA区域,因为此处的空中交通管制(ATC)单位有兴趣通过模拟回避路线来提高管制员的工作量,尤其是用于管理进场飞机交通。ATC单位对模拟的回避路线进行目视检查,其结果令人满意,但是商定了用实际观察到的路线对模拟情况进行定量验证。本文选择了香港TMA区域内有雷暴且交通严重扭曲时的两种真实恶劣天气情况。但是,进行任何验证之前的主要目标是识别仅仅受到天气影响但并未显示任何管制标志的路线。在飞行位置数据的基础上完成路线选择,选择若干着陆航班,并分析与标准进场路线的偏差。结果显示,272架航班中大多数同时受到天气和管制的影响(60%),这突出表明空中交通管制员在恶劣天气下要安全有效地管理着陆交通是存在挑战的。只有少数受天气影响的航班(7%)未受到管制,可以用于验证。DIVMET 模拟路线被传给当地空中交通管制员,证明了这些路线是潜在切实的回避路线。在TMA区域内的DIVMET气象回避路线模拟有一定参考价值,但是进一步的模型开发必须将管制纳入考虑,至少要考虑停候、近道和减速。
关键词:雷暴回避;机场起飞着陆滑行区域;香港;水平环行;协同决策

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article

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