Full Text:   <2712>

Summary:  <1460>

CLC number: TU45

On-line Access: 2016-11-03

Received: 2015-08-18

Revision Accepted: 2016-03-07

Crosschecked: 2016-10-13

Cited: 2

Clicked: 3702

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

 ORCID:

Yu Zhao

http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0453-1960

-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2016 Vol.17 No.11 P.886-902

http://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.A1500233


Upper bound analysis for estimation of the influence of seepage on tunnel face stability in layered soils


Author(s):  Wei Liu, Bettina Albers, Yu Zhao, Xiao-wu Tang

Affiliation(s):  School of Urban Rail Transportation, Soochow University, Suzhou 215131, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   zhao_yu@zju.edu.cn

Key Words:  Face stability, Upper bound analysis, Support pressure, Groundwater seepage, Layered soils


Wei Liu, Bettina Albers, Yu Zhao, Xiao-wu Tang. Upper bound analysis for estimation of the influence of seepage on tunnel face stability in layered soils[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2016, 17(11): 886-902.

@article{title="Upper bound analysis for estimation of the influence of seepage on tunnel face stability in layered soils",
author="Wei Liu, Bettina Albers, Yu Zhao, Xiao-wu Tang",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
volume="17",
number="11",
pages="886-902",
year="2016",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",
doi="10.1631/jzus.A1500233"
}

%0 Journal Article
%T Upper bound analysis for estimation of the influence of seepage on tunnel face stability in layered soils
%A Wei Liu
%A Bettina Albers
%A Yu Zhao
%A Xiao-wu Tang
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 17
%N 11
%P 886-902
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2016
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A1500233

TY - JOUR
T1 - Upper bound analysis for estimation of the influence of seepage on tunnel face stability in layered soils
A1 - Wei Liu
A1 - Bettina Albers
A1 - Yu Zhao
A1 - Xiao-wu Tang
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 17
IS - 11
SP - 886
EP - 902
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2016
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A1500233


Abstract: 
Tunnel face stability is important for safe tunneling and the protection of the surrounding environment. upper bound analysis is a widely applied method to investigate tunnel face stability. In this paper, a tunnel face collapse of Guangzhou metro line 3 is presented. Accordingly, seepage is considered in the upper bound solutions for face stability in layered soils. Steady-state seepage is reached in the first 1200 s of each drilling step. In the crossed layer, the seepage flow is horizontal toward the tunnel face, whereas in the cover layer, the seepage vertically percolates into the crossed layer. By considering the seepage forces on the tunnel face and on the soil particles, the upper bound solution for the support pressure needed for face stability in layered soil with seepage is obtained. Under saturated conditions, the support pressure is influenced by the variation of the depth ratio due to the seepage effect. Moreover, the support pressure depends linearly on the groundwater level. This study provides estimations of the support pressure for face stability in tunnel design.

The paper presents an interesting analysis on the tunnel face stability derived in layered soils obeying Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion under seepage flow conditions by the kinematic approach of the limit analysis. The work is mainly conducted based on the multi-layered failure mechanism of Tang et al (2014), and the seepage force, which is regarded as a body force in the work calculation, is calculated with the elementary theory for semi-confined aquifers (Verruijt, 1970). Comparative calculations are presented in order to discuss the effect of some model parameters, mainly the tunnel diameter and the groundwater level. The Authors conclude that the seepage effect significantly affects the stability of a tunnel face; especially the required support pressure is proportional to the hydrostatic hydraulic head. In a word, the manuscript is very well-written with convincing results.

成层土中地下水渗流对盾构隧道开挖面稳定影响上限分析

目的:盾构隧道在成层土中掘进时,地下水渗流容易引起盾构开挖面失稳破坏。本文提出考虑地下水渗流的机动场模型,探讨成层土中地下水渗流规律,研究渗流对开挖面稳定性的影响,并提出渗流条件下成层土中盾构支护压力的计算方法。
创新点:1. 提出考虑地下水渗流盾构开挖面失稳机动场 的模型;2. 建立成层土中地下水渗流模型; 3. 推导考虑地下水渗流的盾构开挖面极限支护压力上限解。
方法:1. 根据已有工程案例,对渗流条件下成层土中盾构开挖面失稳进行受力分析(图5),并提出开挖面失稳机动场模型(图6);2. 通过上限分析,推导得到盾构开挖面失稳极限支护压力计算公式(公式29);3. 对成层土中地下水渗流进行数值模拟,并采用理论模型(图15)对渗流规律进行表征;4. 研究极限支护压力对地下水渗流因素的敏感性。
结论:1. 地下水渗流在失稳土体内部产生渗流力作用,在盾构开挖面上也对支护压力产生抵消作用。2. 提出成层土中考虑地下水渗流的失稳机动场模型,并推导出极限支护压力上限解; 3. 在盾构土舱未进行渗透性改良的条件下,成层土中地下水渗流在1200 s内达到稳定,其中,穿越层渗流方向主要为水平向,而覆土层中主要为竖向渗流;4. 考虑渗流影响,本文上限解预测的支护压力值更为合理。

关键词:开挖面稳定;上限分析;支护压力;地下水渗流;成层土

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article

Reference

[1]Anagnostou, G., Kovári, K., 1996. Face stability conditions with earth pressure balanced shields. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 11(2):165-173.

[2]Atkinson, J.H., Potts, D.M., 1977. Stability of a shallow circular tunnel in cohesion-less soil. Géotechnique, 27(2):203-215.

[3]Babendererde, S., Hoek, E., Marinos, P., et al., 2004. Geological risk in the use of TBMs in heterogeneous rock masses–the case of “Metro do Porto” and the measures adopted. Courses on Geotechnical Risk in Rock Tunnels, University of Aveiro, Portugal.

[4]Borghi, F.X., Mair, R.J., 2006. Soil conditioning under London. T&T International, 9(6):18-20.

[5]Broere, W., 1998. Face stability calculations for a slurry shield in heterogeneous soft soils. In: Negro, A.Jr., Ferreira, A.A. (Eds.), Tunnels and Metropolises. Rotterdam, Balkema, France, p.215-218.

[6]Broere, W., 2001. Tunnel Face Stability & New CPT Applications. PhD Thesis, Geotechnical Laboratory, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherland.

[7]Broere, W., van Tol, A.F., 2000. Influence of infiltration and groundwater flow on tunnel face stability. In: Kusakabe, O., Fujita, K., Miyazaki, Y. (Eds.), Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground. Balkema, France, p.339-344.

[8]Chambon, P., Corté, J.F., 1994. Shallow tunnels in cohesionless soil: stability of tunnel face. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 120(7):1148-1165.

[9]Chen, W.F., Liu, X.L., 1990. Limit Analysis in Soil Mechanics. Elsevier, New York, USA.

[10]Davis, E.H., Gunn, M.J., Mair, R.J., et al., 1980. The stability of shallow tunnels and underground openings in cohesive material. Geotechnique, 30(4):397-416.

[11]de Buhan, P., Cuvillier, A., Dormieux, L., et al., 1999. Face stability of shallow circular tunnels driven under the water table: a numerical analysis. International Journal for Numerical Analytical Methods in Geo-mechanics, 23(1):79-95.

[12]Gugliemetti, V., Grasso, P., Mahtab, A., et al., 2008. Mechanized Tunneling in Urban Areas. Taylor & Francis, London, UK.

[13]Holtz, R.D., Kovacs, W.D., 1981. An Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering. Prentice-Hall, Inc., USA.

[14]Horn, N., 1961. Horizontaler Erddruck auf Senkrechte Abschlussflächen von Tunnelröhren. In: Landeskonferenz der Ungarischen Tiefbauindustrie. German Geotechnical Society, Germany, p.7-16 (in German).

[15]Huang, Z.R., Zhu, W., Liang, J.H., et al., 2006. A study on the limit support pressure at excavation face of shield tunneling. China Civil Engineering Journal, 39(10):112-116 (in Chinese).

[16]Ibrahim, E., Soubra, A.H., Mollon, G., et al., 2015. Three-dimensional face stability analysis of pressurized tunnels driven in a multi-layered purely frictional medium. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 49(3):18-34.

[17]Jancsecz, S., Steiner, W., 1994. Face support for a large mix-shield in heterogenous ground conditions. In: Tunneling’94. Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, London, UK, p.531-550.

[18]Leca, E., Dormieux, L., 1990. Upper and lower bound solutions for the face stability of shallow circular tunnels in frictional material. Geotechnique, 40(4):581-606.

[19]Lee, I.M., Nam, S.W., 2001. The study of seepage forces acting on the tunnel lining and tunnel face in shallow tunnels. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 16(1):31-40.

[20]Lee, I.M., Nam, S.W., Ahn, J.H., 2003. Effect of seepage forces on tunnel face stability. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 40(2):342-350.

[21]Liu, X.Y., Yuan, D.J., 2014. An in-situ slurry fracturing test for slurry shield tunneling. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A (Applied Physics & Engineering), 15(7):465-481.

[22]Lv, X.L., Wang, H.R., Huang, M.S., 2014. Upper bound solution for the face stability of shield tunnel below the water table. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 2014: 72964.

[23]Maidl, B., Herrenknecht, M., Maidl, U., et al., 1996. Mechanised Shield Tunneling, 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Germany.

[24]Maidl, U., Cordes, H., 2003. Active Earth Pressure with Foam. Would Tunnel Congress, Amsterdam, the Netherland, p.791-797.

[25]Michalowski, R.L., 1995. Slope stability analysis: a kinematical approach. Géotechnique, 45(2):283-293.

[26]Mollon, G., Dias, D., Soubra, A., 2010. Face stability analysis of circular tunnels driven by a pressurized shield. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 136(1):215-229.

[27]Perazzelli, P., Leone, T., Anagnostou, G., 2014. Tunnel face stability under seepage flow conditions. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 43:459-469.

[28]Powrie, W., 2002. Soil Mechanics Concept & Application, 2nd Edition. Taylor & Francis, London, UK.

[29]Senent, S., Jimenez, R., 2015. A tunnel face failure mechanism for layered ground, considering the possibility of partial collapse. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 49:182-192.

[30]Soubra, A., 2000. Static and seismic passive earth pressure coefficients on rigid retaining structures. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 37(2):463-478.

[31]Tang, X.W., Liu, W., Albers, B., et al., 2014. Upper bound analysis of tunnel face stability in layered soil. Acta Geotechnica, 9(4):661-671.

[32]Verruijt, A., 1970. Theory of Groundwater Flow. MacMillan, London, UK.

[33]Viratjandr, C., Michalowski, R.L., 2006. Limit analysis of submerged slopes subjected to water drawdown. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 43(8):802-814.

[34]Whitlow, R., 1991. Basic Soil Mechanics, 3rd Edition. Longman Group Limited, UK.

[35]Yang, X., Gong, G.F., Yang, H.Y., et al., 2015. A cutterhead energy-saving technique for shield tunneling machines based on load characteristic prediction. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A (Applied Physics & Engineering), 16(5):418-426.

[36]Yin, Y.S., Chen, R.P., Li, Y.C., et al., 2016. A column system for modeling bentonite slurry infiltration in sands. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A (Applied Physics & Engineering), 17(10):818-827.

[37]Zhu, W.B., Ju, S.J., Shi, H.O., 2002. Guangzhou Metro Line 3 Shield Tunnelling Technology. Jinan University Press, Guangzhou, China (in Chinese).

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion

<1>

Please provide your name, email address and a comment





Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2022 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE