Full Text:   <1223>

Summary:  <1276>

CLC number: TU312

On-line Access: 2021-06-21

Received: 2020-06-12

Revision Accepted: 2020-08-26

Crosschecked: 2021-05-20

Cited: 0

Clicked: 2291

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714


Aydin Shishegaran


-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2021 Vol.22 No.6 P.441-466


Prediction of the load-carrying capacity of reinforced concrete connections under post-earthquake fire

Author(s):  Aydin Shishegaran, Mehdi Moradi, Mohammad Ali Naghsh, Behnam Karami, Arshia Shishegaran

Affiliation(s):  School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran; more

Corresponding email(s):   aydin_shishegaran@civileng.iust.ac.ir

Key Words:  Reinforced concrete connection (RCC), Post-earthquake fire (PEF), Surrogate models, Load-carrying capacity, Gene expression programming (GEP), Ensemble model

Aydin Shishegaran, Mehdi Moradi, Mohammad Ali Naghsh, Behnam Karami, Arshia Shishegaran. Prediction of the load-carrying capacity of reinforced concrete connections under post-earthquake fire[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2021, 22(6): 441-466.

@article{title="Prediction of the load-carrying capacity of reinforced concrete connections under post-earthquake fire",
author="Aydin Shishegaran, Mehdi Moradi, Mohammad Ali Naghsh, Behnam Karami, Arshia Shishegaran",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Prediction of the load-carrying capacity of reinforced concrete connections under post-earthquake fire
%A Aydin Shishegaran
%A Mehdi Moradi
%A Mohammad Ali Naghsh
%A Behnam Karami
%A Arshia Shishegaran
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 22
%N 6
%P 441-466
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2021
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A2000268

T1 - Prediction of the load-carrying capacity of reinforced concrete connections under post-earthquake fire
A1 - Aydin Shishegaran
A1 - Mehdi Moradi
A1 - Mohammad Ali Naghsh
A1 - Behnam Karami
A1 - Arshia Shishegaran
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 22
IS - 6
SP - 441
EP - 466
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2021
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A2000268

Finding out the most effective parameters relating to the resistance of reinforced concrete connections (RCCs) is an important topic in structural engineering. In this study, first, a finite element (FE) model is developed for simulating the performance of RCCs under post-earthquake fire (PEF). Then surrogate models, including multiple linear regression (MLR), multiple natural logarithm (Ln) equation regression (MLnER), gene expression programming (GEP), and an ensemble model, are used to predict the remaining load-carrying capacity of an RCC under PEF. The statistical parameters, error terms, and a novel statistical table are used to evaluate and compare the accuracy of each surrogate model. According to the results, the ratio of the longitudinal reinforcement bars of the column (RLC) has a significant effect on the resistance of an RCC under PEF. Increasing the value of this parameter from 1% to 8% can increase the residual load-carrying capacity of an RCC under PEF by 492.2% when the RCC is exposed to fire at a temperature of 1000 °C. Moreover, based on the results, the ensemble model can predict the residual load-carrying capacity with suitable accuracy. A safety factor of 1.55 should be applied to the results obtained from the ensemble model.


创新点:1. 本文评估了几个参数对RCC行为的影响(在此之前没有相关研究),同时也评估了几个设计参数的影响.2. 通过使用替代模型(比如基因表达式编程(GEP))预测了RCC的承载能力.
方法:1. 使用有限元方法开发132个具有各种设计参数的模型.2. 采用回归模型、GEP和集成模型等替代模型预测多个设计参数对RCC承载能力的影响.
结论:1. 温度从25 °C提高到600 °C和1000 °C,可导致RCC的承载能力分别降低25%和75%以上.2. 提高RCC耐火性的最有效参数是柱的纵向钢筋(RLC).将RLC从1%增加到8%,RCC在不同温度下的承载能力提高了234.8%~492.9%.3. 提高混凝土的抗压强度可略微增加RCC在震后火灾(PEF)下的剩余承载能力;该影响在高温情况下更为明显,因为高温时钢材的力学性能下降迅速.4. 集成模型为预测PEF情况下RCC剩余承载能力的最佳模型.


Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]ACI (American Concrete Institute), 2014. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete, ACI 318-14. ACI, Farmington Hills, USA.

[2]ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers), 2000. Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings, FEMA 356. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington DC, USA.

[3]ATC (Applied Technology Council), 2007. Interim Testing Protocols for Determining the Seismic Performance Characteristics of Structural and Nonstructural Components, FEMA 461. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington DC, USA.

[4]Behnam B, Ronagh H, 2013a. Performance of reinforced concrete structures subjected to fire following earthquake. European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, 17(4):270-292.

[5]Behnam B, Ronagh H, 2013b. A post-earthquake fire factor to improve the fire resistance of damaged ordinary reinforced concrete structures. Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, 4(4):207-226.

[6]Behnam B, Ronagh HR, Lim PJ, 2016. Numerical evaluation of the post-earthquake fire resistance of CFRP-strengthened reinforced concrete joints based on experimental observations. European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, 20(2):142-160.

[7]Birss BR, 1978. The Elastic Behaviour of Earthquake Resistant Reinforced Concrete Interior Beam-column Joints. MS Thesis, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

[8]Bratina S, Saje M, Planinc I, 2007. The effects of different strain contributions on the response of RC beams in fire. Engineering Structures, 29(3):418-430.

[9]Bursi OS, Ferrario F, Pucinotti R, et al., 2011. Seismic-induced fire analysis of steel-concrete composite beam-to-column joints: bolted solutions. Proceedings of Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete VI, p.493-505.

[10]Cai YC, Sun P, Zhu HH, et al., 2018. A mixed cover meshless method for elasticity and fracture problems. Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, 95:73-103.

[11]CEB-FIP (Comité Euro-International du Béton–Fédération Internationale de la Précontrainte), 1993. CEP-FIP Model Code 90, Model Code for Concrete Structures. Thomas Telford, London, UK.

[12]CEN (European Committee for Standardization), 2001. Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures—Part 1-2: General Rules—Structural Fire Design, DD ENV 1993-1-2:2001. CEN, Brussels, Belgium.

[13]CEN (European Committee for Standardization), 2004. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures—Part 1-2: General Rules—Structural Fire Design, BS EN 1992-1-2: 2004. CEN, Brussels, Belgium.

[14]Della Corte G, Landolfo R, Mazzolani FM, 2003. Post-earthquake fire resistance of moment resisting steel frames. Fire Safety Journal, 38(7):593-612.

[15]D׳Orazio M, Quagliarini E, Bernardini G, et al., 2014. EPES– earthquake pedestrians’ evacuation simulator: a tool for predicting earthquake pedestrians’ evacuation in urban outdoor scenarios. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 10:153-177.

[16]DS (Dassault Systems), 2010. ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual, Version 6.10. DS, Providence, USA.

[17]Elghazouli AY, Cashell KA, Izzuddin BA, 2009. Experimental evaluation of the mechanical properties of steel reinforcement at elevated temperature. Fire Safety Journal, 44(6):909-919.

[18]Ervine A, Gillie M, Stratford TJ, et al., 2012. Thermal propagation through tensile cracks in reinforced concrete. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 24(5):516-522.

[19]Ferreira C, 2002. Gene expression programming in problem solving. In: Roy R, Köppen M, Ovaska S, et al. (Eds.), Soft Computing and Industry. Springer, London, p.635-653.

[20]Gao WY, Dai JG, Teng JG, et al., 2013. Finite element modeling of reinforced concrete beams exposed to fire. Engineering Structures, 52:488-501.

[21]Gernay T, Khorasani NE, Garlock M, 2019. Fire fragility functions for steel frame buildings: sensitivity analysis and reliability framework. Fire Technology, 55(4):1175-1210.

[22]Guo ZH, 2014. Principles of Reinforced Concrete. Butterworth-Hein, Oxford, UK.

[23]Han LH, Huo JS, Wang YC, 2007. Behavior of steel beam to concrete-filled steel tubular column connections after exposure to fire. Journal of Structural Engineering, 133(6):800-814.

[24]He B, Mortazavi B, Zhuang XY, et al., 2016. Modeling Kapitza resistance of two-phase composite material. Composite Structures, 152:939-946.

[25]Heidarpour A, Bradford MA, 2011. Beam-column element for non-linear dynamic analysis of steel members subjected to blast loading. Engineering Structures, 33(4):1259-1266.

[26]Himoto K, Tanaka T, 2008. Development and validation of a physics-based urban fire spread model. Fire Safety Journal, 43(7):477-494.

[27]Islam MS, Alam S, 2013. Principal component and multiple regression analysis for steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) beams. International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, 7(4):303-317.

[28]ISO (International Organization for Standardization), 1999. Fire-resistance Tests—Elements of Building Construction —Part 1: General Requirements, ISO 834-1:1999. ISO, Geneva, Switzerland.

[29]Kamath P, Sharma UK, Kumar V, et al., 2015. Full-scale fire test on an earthquake-damaged reinforced concrete frame. Fire Safety Journal, 73:1-19.

[30]Khorasani NE, Garlock MEM, Quiel SE, 2015a. Modeling steel structures in OpenSees: enhancements for fire and multi-hazard probabilistic analyses. Computers & Structures, 157:218-231.

[31]Khorasani NE, Gardoni P, Garlock M, 2015b. Probabilistic fire analysis: material models and evaluation of steel structural members. Journal of Structural Engineering, 141(12):04015050.

[32]Khorasani NE, Gernay T, Garlock M, 2017. Data-driven probabilistic post-earthquake fire ignition model for a community. Fire Safety Journal, 94:33-44.

[33]Kim J, LaFave JM, 2007. Key influence parameters for the joint shear behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) beam-column connections. Engineering Structures, 29(10):2523-2539.

[34]Kodur V, Khaliq W, 2011. Effect of temperature on thermal properties of different types of high-strength concrete. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 23(6):793-801.

[35]Kodur V, Dwaikat M, Fike R, 2010. High-temperature properties of steel for fire resistance modeling of structures. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 22(5):423-434.

[36]Kodur VKR, Dwaikat M, 2007. Performance-based fire safety design of reinforced concrete beams. Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, 17(4):293-320.

[37]Kodur VKR, Dwaikat MMS, Dwaikat MB, 2008. High-temperature properties of concrete for fire resistance modeling of structures. ACI Materials Journal, 105(5):517-527.

[38]Kong SK, 2011. A Study of Implementing Performance-based Design for Fire Safety Provisions in Higher Education Institutes. PhD Thesis, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.

[39]Kumar V, Sharma UK, Singh B, et al., 2013. Effect of temperature on mechanical properties of pre-damaged steel reinforcing bars. Construction and Building Materials, 46:19-27.

[40]Lubliner J, Oliver J, Oller S, et al., 1989. A plastic-damage model for concrete. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 25(3):299-326.

[41]Markovič M, Saje M, Planinc I, et al., 2012. On strain softening in finite element analysis of RC planar frames subjected to fire. Engineering Structures, 45:349-361.

[42]McConnell JR, Brown H, 2011. Evaluation of progressive collapse alternate load path analyses in designing for blast resistance of steel columns. Engineering Structures, 33(10):2899-2909.

[43]Miao JJ, Chen N, Hou XY, et al., 2013. Experimental research and numerical simulation on fire resistance performance of RC beams with damages caused by service loading. Journal of Building Structures, 34(3):1-11 (in Chinese).

[44]Mohebbi F, Sellier M, Rabczuk T, 2017. Estimation of linearly temperature-dependent thermal conductivity using an inverse analysis. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 117:68-76.

[45]Mostafaei H, Kabeyasawa T, 2007. Axial-shear-flexure interaction approach for reinforced concrete columns. ACI Structural Journal, 104(2):218-226.

[46]Mostafaei H, Vecchio FJ, Bénichou N, 2010. Seismic resistance of fire-damaged reinforced concrete columns. Proceedings of Improving the Seismic Performance of Existing Buildings and Other Structures, p.1396-1407.

[47]Oucif C, Voyiadjis GZ, Rabczuk T, 2018. Modeling of damage-healing and nonlinear self-healing concrete behavior: application to coupled and uncoupled self-healing mechanisms. Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, 96:216-230.

[48]Pakala P, Kodur V, Selamet S, et al., 2012. Fire behavior of shear angle connections in a restrained steel frame. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 77:119-130.

[49]Pampanin S, Calvi GM, Moratti M, 2002. Seismic behavior of R.C. beam-column joints designed for gravity only. Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering.

[50]Pavlović M, Marković Z, Veljković M, et al., 2013. Bolted shear connectors vs. headed studs behaviour in push-out tests. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 88:134-149.

[51]Pucinotti R, Bursi OS, Demonceau JF, 2011. Post-earthquake fire and seismic performance of welded steel-concrete composite beam-to-column joints. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 67(9):1358-1375.

[52]Rabczuk T, 2013. Computational methods for fracture in brittle and quasi-brittle solids: state-of-the-art review and future perspectives. International Scholarly Research Notices, 2013:849231.

[53]Rabczuk T, Belytschko T, 2006. Application of particle methods to static fracture of reinforced concrete structures. International Journal of Fracture, 137(1-4):19-49.

[54]Rabczuk T, Zi G, Bordas S, et al., 2008. A geometrically non-linear three-dimensional cohesive crack method for reinforced concrete structures. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 75(16):4740-4758.

[55]Ronagh HR, Behnam B, 2012. Investigating the effect of prior damage on the post-earthquake fire resistance of reinforced concrete portal frames. International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, 6(4):209-220.

[56]Scawthorn C, 2010. Analysis of Fire Following Earthquake Potential for San Francisco, California. Applied Technology Council on Behalf of the Department of Building Inspection, City and County of San Francisco, USA.

[57]Scawthorn C, Eidinger JM, Schiff AJ, 2005. Fire Following Earthquake. ASCE, Reston, USA.

[58]Sharma UK, Bhargava P, Singh BB, et al., 2012. Full-scale testing of a damaged reinforced concrete frame in fire. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Structures and Buildings, 165(7):335-346.

[59]Shi XD, Tan TH, Tan KH, et al., 2004. Influence of concrete cover on fire resistance of reinforced concrete flexural members. Journal of Structural Engineering, 130(8):1225-1232.

[60]Shishegaran A, Rahimi S, Darabi H, 2017. Introducing box-plate beam-to-column moment connections. Vibroengineering PROCEDIA, 11:200-204.

[61]Shishegaran A, Amiri A, Jafari MA, 2018. Seismic performance of box-plate, box-plate with UNP, box-plate with L-plate and ordinary rigid beam-to-column moment connections. Journal of Vibroengineering, 20(3):1470-1487.

[62]Shishegaran A, Ghasemi MR, Varaee H, 2019. Performance of a novel bent-up bars system not interacting with concrete. Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering, 13(6):1301-1315.

[63]Shishegaran A, Khalili MR, Karami B, et al., 2020a. Computational predictions for estimating the maximum deflection of reinforced concrete panels subjected to the blast load. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 139: 103527.

[64]Shishegaran A, Saeedi M, Kumar A, et al., 2020b. Prediction of air quality in Tehran by developing the nonlinear ensemble model. Journal of Cleaner Production, 259: 120825.

[65]Su XT, Yang ZJ, Liu GH, 2010. Finite element modelling of complex 3D static and dynamic crack propagation by embedding cohesive elements in ABAQUS. Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica, 23(3):271-282.

[66]Thai TQ, Rabczuk T, Zhuang XY, 2020. Isogeometric cohesive zone model for thin shell delamination analysis based on kirchhoff-love shell model. Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering, 14(2):267-279.

[67]Vejmelková E, Padevět P, Černý R, 2008. Effect of cracks on hygric and thermal characteristics of concrete. Bauphysik, 30(6):438-444.

[68]Wen B, Wu B, Niu DT, 2016. Post-earthquake fire performance of reinforced concrete columns. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 12(9):1106-1126.

[69]Wu B, Xu YY, 2009. Behavior of axially-and-rotationally restrained concrete columns with ‘+’-shaped cross section and subjected to fire. Fire Safety Journal, 44(2):212-218.

[70]Wu B, Xiong W, Wen B, 2014. Thermal fields of cracked concrete members in fire. Fire Safety Journal, 66:15-24.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2022 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE