Full Text:   <3236>

CLC number: Q3; R71

On-line Access: 2010-01-06

Received: 2010-06-01

Revision Accepted: 2010-09-29

Crosschecked: 2010-12-08

Cited: 29

Clicked: 6505

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2011 Vol.12 No.1 P.1-11


Whole genome amplification in preimplantation genetic diagnosis

Author(s):  Ying-ming Zheng, Ning Wang, Lei Li, Fan Jin

Affiliation(s):  Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Womens Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310006, China

Corresponding email(s):   jinfan@zju.edu.cn

Key Words:  Whole genome amplification, Multiple displacement amplification, Primer extension preamplification, Degenerate oligonucleotide primed-polymerase chain reaction, Preimplantation genetic diagnosis

Share this article to: More |Next Article >>>

Ying-ming Zheng, Ning Wang, Lei Li, Fan Jin. Whole genome amplification in preimplantation genetic diagnosis[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2011, 12(1): 1-11.

@article{title="Whole genome amplification in preimplantation genetic diagnosis",
author="Ying-ming Zheng, Ning Wang, Lei Li, Fan Jin",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Whole genome amplification in preimplantation genetic diagnosis
%A Ying-ming Zheng
%A Ning Wang
%A Lei Li
%A Fan Jin
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 12
%N 1
%P 1-11
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2011
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.B1000196

T1 - Whole genome amplification in preimplantation genetic diagnosis
A1 - Ying-ming Zheng
A1 - Ning Wang
A1 - Lei Li
A1 - Fan Jin
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 12
IS - 1
SP - 1
EP - 11
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2011
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.B1000196

preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) refers to a procedure for genetically analyzing embryos prior to implantation, improving the chance of conception for patients at high risk of transmitting specific inherited disorders. This method has been widely used for a large number of genetic disorders since the first successful application in the early 1990s. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) are the two main methods in PGD, but there are some inevitable shortcomings limiting the scope of genetic diagnosis. Fortunately, different whole genome amplification (WGA) techniques have been developed to overcome these problems. Sufficient DNA can be amplified and multiple tasks which need abundant DNA can be performed. Moreover, WGA products can be analyzed as a template for multi-loci and multi-gene during the subsequent DNA analysis. In this review, we will focus on the currently available WGA techniques and their applications, as well as the new technical trends from WGA products.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]Ao, A., Wells, D., Handyside, A.H., Winston, R.M., Delhanty, J.D., 1998. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis of inherited cancer: familial adenomatous polyposis coli. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet., 15(3):140-144.

[2]Barker, D.L., Hansen, M.S., Faruqi, A.F., Giannola, D., Irsula, O.R., Lasken, R.S., Latterich, M., Makarov, V., Oliphant, A., Pinter, J.H., et al., 2004. Two methods of whole genome amplification enable accurate genotyping across a 2320-SNP linkage panel. Genome Res., 14(5):901-907.

[3]Bergen, A.W., Haque, K.A., Qi, Y., Beerman, M.B., Garcia-Closas, M., Rothman, N., Chanock, S.J., 2005. Comparison of yield and genotyping performance of multiple displacement amplification and OmniPlex whole genome amplified DNA generated from multiple DNA sources. Hum. Mutat., 26(3):262-270.

[4]Bonnette, M.D., Pavlova, V.R., Rodier, D.N., Thompson, L.P., Boone, E.L., Brown, K.L., Meyer, K.M., Trevino, M.B., Champagne, J.R., Cruz, T.D., 2009. dcDegenerate oligonucleotide primed-PCR for multilocus, genome-wide analysis from limited quantities of DNA. Diagn. Mol. Pathol., 18(3):165-175.

[5]Burlet, P., Frydman, N., Gigarel, N., Kerbrat, V., Tachdjian, G., Feyereisen, E., Bonnefont, J.P., Frydman, R., Munnich, A., Steffann, J., 2006. Multiple displacement amplification improves PGD for fragile X syndrome. Mol. Hum. Reprod., 12(10):647-652.

[6]Carlson, C.S., Eberle, M.A., Rieder, M.J., Smith, J.D., Kruglyak, L., Nickerson, D.A., 2003. Additional SNPs and linkage-disequilibrium analyses are necessary for whole-genome association studies in humans. Nat. Genet., 33(4):518-521.

[7]Chen, S.U., Su, Y.N., Fang, M.Y., Chang, L.J., Tsai, Y.Y., Lin, L.T., Lee, C.N., Yang, Y.S., 2008. PGD of β-thalassaemia and HLA haplotypes using OmniPlex whole genome amplification. Reprod. BioMed. Online, 17(5):699-705.

[8]Cheung, V.G., Nelson, S.F., 1996. Whole genome amplification using a degenerate oligonucleotide primer allows hundreds of genotypes to be performed on less than one nanogram of genomic DNA. PNAS, 93(25):14676-14679.

[9]Coskun, S., Alsmadi, O., 2007. Whole genome amplification from a single cell: a new era for preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Prenat. Diagn., 27(4):297-302.

[10]Dean, F.B., Hosono, S., Fang, L., Wu, X., Faruqi, A.F., Bray-Ward, P., Sun, Z., Zong, Q., Du, Y., Du, J., et al., 2002. Comprehensive human genome amplification using multiple displacement amplification. PNAS, 99(8):5261-5266.

[11]Dietmaier, W., Hartmann, A., Wallinger, S., Heinmöller, E., Kerner, T., Endl, E., Jauch, K.W., Hofstädter, F., Rüschoff, J., 1999. Multiple mutation analyses in single tumor cells with improved whole genome amplification. Am. J. Pathol., 154(1):83-95.

[12]Eckert, K.A., Kunkel, T.A., 1991. DNA polymerase fidelity and the polymerase chain reaction. Genome Res., 1(1):17-24.

[13]El-Toukhy, T., Bickerstaff, H., Meller, S., 2010. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for haematologic conditions. Curr. Opin. Pediatr., 22(1):28-34.

[14]Escribá, M.J., Zulategui, J.F., Galán, A., Mercader, A., Remohí, J., de los Santos, M.J., 2008. Vitrification of preimplantation genetically diagnosed human blastocysts and its contribution to the cumulative ongoing pregnancy rate per cycle by using a closed device. Fertil. Steril., 89(4):840-846.

[15]Esteban, J.A., Salas, M., Blanco, L., 1993. Fidelity of φ29 DNA polymerase. Comparison between protein-primed initiation and DNA polymerization. J. Biol. Chem., 268(4):2719-2726.

[16]Findlay, I., Ray, P., Quirke, P., Rutherford, A., Lilford, R., 1995. Allelic drop-out and preferential amplification in single cells and human blastomeres: implications for preimplantation diagnosis of sex and cystic fibrosis. Mol. Hum. Reprod., 1(4):209-218.

[17]Fragouli, E., Wells, D., Thornhill, A., Serhal, P., Faed, M.J.W., Harper, J.C., Delhanty, J.D.A., 2006. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of human oocytes and polar bodies. Hum. Reprod., 21(9):2319-2328.

[18]Frumkin, D., Wasserstrom, A., Itzkovitz, S., Harmelin, A., Rechavi, G., Shapiro, E., 2008. Amplification of multiple genomic loci from single cells isolated by laser micro-dissection of tissues. BMC Biotechnol., 8(1):17.

[19]Fu, Y.H., Kuhl, D.P., Pizzuti, A., Pieretti, M., Sutcliffe, J.S., Richards, S., Verkerk, A.J., Holden, J.J., Fenwick, R.G.Jr., Warren, S.T., et al., 1991. Variation of the CGG repeat at the fragile X site results in genetic instability: resolution of the Sherman paradox. Cell, 67(6):1047-1058.

[20]Gribble, S., Ng, B.L., Prigmore, E., Burford, D.C., Carter, N.P., 2004. Chromosome paints from single copies of chromosomes. Chromosome Res., 12(2):143-151.

[21]Handyside, A.H., Pattinson, J.K., Penketh, R.J., Delhanty, J.D., Winston, R.M., Tuddenham, E.G., 1989. Biopsy of human preimplantation embryos and sexing by DNA amplification. Lancet, 333(8634):347-349.

[22]Handyside, A.H., Kontogianni, E.H., Hardy, K., Winston, R.M., 1990. Pregnancies from biopsied human preimplantation embryos sexed by Y-specific DNA amplification. Nature, 344(6268):768-770.

[23]Handyside, A.H., Robinson, M.D., Simpson, R.J., Omar, M.B., Shaw, M.A., Grudzinskas, J.G., Rutherford, A., 2004. Isothermal whole genome amplification from single and small numbers of cells: a new era for preimplantation genetic diagnosis of inherited disease. Mol. Hum. Reprod., 10(10):767-772.

[24]Harper, J.C., Wells, D., 1999. Recent advances and future developments in PGD. Prenat. Diagn., 19(13):1193-1199.

[25]Harper, J.C., Repping, S., Hill, D., 2009. Current controversies in prenatal diagnosis 1: is aneuploidy testing by PGD indicated for all infertile patients undergoing IVF? Prenat. Diagn., 29(1):2-5.

[26]Hellani, A., Coskun, S., Benkhalifa, M., Tbakhi, A., Sakati, N., Al-Odaib, A., Ozand, P., 2004. Multiple displacement amplification on single cell and possible PGD applications. Mol. Hum. Reprod., 10(11):847-852.

[27]Hu, D.G., Webb, G., Hussey, N., 2004. Aneuploidy detection in single cells using DNA array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Mol. Hum. Reprod., 10(4):283-289.

[28]Hu, D.G., Guan, X.Y., Hussey, N., 2007. Gender determination and detection of aneuploidy in single cells using DNA array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Methods Mol. Med., 132:135-151.

[29]Iwamoto, K., Bundo, M., Ueda, J., Nakano, Y., Ukai, W., Hashimoto, E., Saito, T., Kato, T., 2007. Detection of chromosomal structural alterations in single cells by SNP arrays: a systematic survey of amplification bias and optimized workflow. PLoS One, 2(12):e1306.

[30]Jiang, Z., Zhang, X., Deka, R., Jin, L., 2005. Genome amplification of single sperm using multiple displacement amplification. Nucleic Acids Res., 33(10):e91.

[31]Jiao, Z., Zhou, C., Li, J., Shu, Y., Liang, X., Zhang, M., Zhuang, G., 2003. Birth of healthy children after preimplantation diagnosis of beta-thalassemia by whole-genome amplification. Prenat. Diagn., 23(8):646-651.

[32]Jin, F., Huang, H.F., Ye, Y.H., Xu, C.M., Xing, L.F., 2000. Study on the amplification uniformity of whole genome in a single cell by degenerate oligonucleotide primed polymerase chain reaction. Chin. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 35(8):459-461 (in Chinese).

[33]Jones, G.M., Cram, D.S., Song, B., Kokkali, G., Pantos, K., Trounson, A.O., 2008. Novel strategy with potential to identify developmentally competent IVF blastocysts. Hum. Reprod., 23(8):1748-1759.

[34]Jonsdottir, B., Bergsteinsson, H., Baldursson, O., 2008. Cystic fibrosis—review. Laeknabladid, 94(12):831-837 (in Icelandic).

[35]Kim, S.A., Yoon, J.A., Kang, M.J., Choi, Y.M., Chae, S.J., Moon, S.Y., 2009. An efficient and reliable DNA extraction method for preimplantation genetic diagnosis: a comparison of allele drop out and amplification rates using different single cell lysis methods. Fertil. Steril., 92(2):814-818.

[36]Kittler, R., Stoneking, M., Kayser, M., 2002. A whole genome amplification method to generate long fragments from low quantities of genomic DNA. Anal. Biochem., 300(2):237-244.

[37]Kumar, G., Garnova, E., Reagin, M., Vidali, A., 2008. Improved multiple displacement amplification with φ29 DNA polymerase for genotyping of single human cells. Biotechniques, 44(7):879-890.

[38]Langmore, J.P., 2002. Rubicon Genomics, Inc. Pharmacogenomics, 3(4):557-560.

[39]le Caignec, C., Spits, C., Sermon, K., de Rycke, M., Thienpont, B., Debrock, S., Staessen, C., Moreau, Y., Fryns, J.P., van Steirteghem, A., et al., 2006. Single-cell chromosomal imbalances detection by array CGH. Nucleic Acids Res., 34(9):e68.

[40]Ling, J., Zhuang, G., Tazon-Vega, B., Zhang, C., Cao, B., Rosenwaks, Z., Xu, K., 2009. Evaluation of genome coverage and fidelity of multiple displacement amplification from single cells by SNP array. Mol. Hum. Reprod., 15(11):739-747.

[41]Lledó, B., Ten, J., Galán, F.M., Bernabeu, R., 2006. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis of Marfan syndrome using multiple displacement amplification. Fertil. Steril., 86(4):949-955.

[42]Lledó, B., Ten, J., Rodriguez-Arnedo, D., Llácer, J., Bernabeu, R., 2008. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis of X-linked retinoschisis. Reprod. Biomed. Online, 16(6):886-892.

[43]Lovmar, L., Syvänen, A.C., 2006. Multiple displacement amplification to create a long-lasting source of DNA for genetic studies. Hum. Mutat., 27(7):603-614.

[44]Malcov, M., Naiman, T., Yosef, D.B., Carmon, A., Mey-Raz, N., Amit, A., Vagman, I., Yaron, Y., 2007. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for fragile X syndrome using multiplex nested PCR. Reprod. BioMed. Online, 14(4):515-521.

[45]Malmgren, H., Sahlen, S., Inzunza, J., Aho, M., Rosenlund, B., Fridström, M., Hovatta, O., Ährlund-Richter, L., Nordenskjöld, M., Blennow, E., 2002. Single cell CGH analysis reveals a high degree of mosaicism in human embryos from patients with balanced structural chromosome aberrations. Mol. Hum. Reprod., 8(5):502-510.

[46]Mueller, C., Flotte, T.R., 2008. Gene therapy for cystic fibrosis. Clin. Rev. Allergy Immunol., 35(3):164-178.

[47]Nelson, D.L., Ledbetter, S.A., Corbo, L., Victoria, M.F., Ramirez-Solis, R., Webster, T.D., Ledbetter, D.H., Caskey, C.T., 1989. Alu polymerase chain reaction: a method for rapid isolation of human-specific sequences from complex DNA sources. PNAS, 86(17):6686-6690.

[48]Ouhibi, N., Olson, S., Patton, P., Wolf, D., 2001. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Curr. Womens Health Rep., 1(2):138-142.

[49]Paez, J.G., Lin, M., Beroukhim, R., Lee, J.C., Zhao, X., Richter, D.J., Gabriel, S., Herman, P., Sasaki, H., Altshuler, D., et al., 2004. Genome coverage and sequence fidelity of φ29 polymerase-based multiple strand displacement whole genome amplification. Nucleic Acids Res., 32(9):e71.

[50]Paunio, T., Reima, I., Syvanen, A.C., 1996. Preimplantation diagnosis by whole-genome amplification, PCR amplification, and solid-phase minisequencing of blastomere DNA. Clin. Chem., 42(9):1382-1390.

[51]Peng, W., Takabayashi, H., Ikawa, K., 2007. Whole genome amplification from single cells in preimplantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol., 131(1):13-20.

[52]Ray, P.F., Handyside, A.H., 1996. Increasing the denaturation temperature during the first cycles of amplification reduces allele dropout from single cells for preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Mol. Hum. Reprod., 2(3):213-218.

[53]Rechitsky, S., Strom, C., Verlinsky, O., Amet, T., Ivakhnenko, V., Kukharenko, V., Kuliev, A., Verlinsky, Y., 1998. Allele dropout in polar bodies and blastomeres. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet., 15(5):253-257.

[54]Ren, Z., Zhou, C., Xu, Y., Deng, J., Zeng, H., Zeng, Y., 2007. Mutation and haplotype analysis for Duchenne muscular dystrophy by single cell multiple displacement amplification. Mol. Hum. Reprod., 13(6):431-436.

[55]Renwick, P.J., Ogilvie, C.M., 2007. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for monogenic diseases: overview and emerging issues. Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn., 7(1):33-43.

[56]Renwick, P.J., Trussler, J., Ostad-Saffari, E., Fassihi, H., Black, C., Braude, P., Ogilvie, C.M., Abbs, S., 2006. Proof of principle and first cases using preimplantation genetic haplotyping—a paradigm shift for embryo diagnosis. Reprod. Biomed. Online, 13(1):110-119.

[57]Renwick, P.J., Lewis, C.M., Abbs, S., Ogilvie, C.M., 2007. Determination of the genetic status of cleavage-stage human embryos by microsatellite marker analysis following multiple displacement amplification. Prenat. Diagn., 27(3):206-215.

[58]Rund, D., Rachmilewitz, E., 2005. β-Thalassemia. New Engl. J. Med., 353(11):1135-1146.

[59]Sánchez-García, J.F., Benet, J., Gutiérrez-Mateo, C., Luís Séculi, J., Monrós, E., Navarro, J., 2005. Multiple mutation analysis of the cystic fibrosis gene in single cells. Mol. Hum. Reprod., 11(6):463-468.

[60]Sermon, K., 2002. Current concepts in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD): a molecular biologist’s view. Hum. Reprod. Update, 8(1):11-20.

[61]Sermon, K., de Rycke, M., 2007. Single cell polymerase chain reaction for preimplantation genetic diagnosis: methods, strategies, and limitations. Methods Mol. Med., 132:31-42.

[62]Sermon, K., Lissens, W., Joris, H., van Steirteghem, A., Liebaers, I., 1996. Adaptation of the primer extension preamplification (PEP) reaction for preimplantation diagnosis: single blastomere analysis using short PEP protocols. Mol. Hum. Reprod., 2(3):209-212.

[63]Shanske, A.L., Edelmann, L., Kardon, N.B., Gosset, P., Levy, B., 2004. Detection of an interstitial deletion of 2q21-22 by high resolution comparative genomic hybridization in a child with multiple congenital anomalies and an apparent balanced translocation. Am. J. Med. Genet., 131a(1):29-35.

[64]Sherlock, J., Cirigliano, V., Petrou, M., Tutschek, B., Adinolfi, M., 1998. Assessment of quantitative fluorescent multiplex PCR performed on single cells. Ann. Hum. Genet., 62(1):9-23.

[65]Silander, K., Saarela, J., 2008. Whole genome amplification with φ29 DNA polymerase to enable genetic or genomic analysis of samples of low DNA yield. Methods Mol. Biol., 439:1-18.

[66]Spits, C., Sermon, K., 2009. PGD for monogenic disorders: aspects of molecular biology. Prenat. Diagn., 29(1):50-56.

[67]Spits, C., le Caignec, C., de Rycke, M., van Haute, L., van Steirteghem, A., Liebaers, I., Sermon, K., 2006. Optimization and evaluation of single-cell whole-genome multiple displacement amplification. Hum. Mutat., 27(5):496-503.

[68]Sun, G., Kaushal, R., Pal, P., Wolujewicz, M., Smelser, D., Cheng, H., Lu, M., Chakraborty, R., Jin, L., Deka, R., 2005. Whole-genome amplification: relative efficiencies of the current methods. Leg. Med. (Tokyo), 7(5):279-286.

[69]Telenius, H., Carter, N.P., Bebb, C.E., Nordenskjold, M., Ponder, B.A., Tunnacliffe, A., 1992. Degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR: general amplification of target DNA by a single degenerate primer. Genomics, 13(3):718-725.

[70]Thornhill, A.R., Snow, K., 2002. Molecular diagnostics in preimplantation genetic diagnosis. J. Mol. Diagn., 4(1):11-29.

[71]Thornhill, A.R., McGrath, J.A., Braude, P., Eady, R., Handyside, A.H., 2001. A comparison of different lysis buffers to assess allele dropout from single cells for preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Prenat. Diagn., 21(6):490-497.

[72]Thornhill, A.R., deDie-Smulders, C.E., Geraedts, J.P., Harper, J.C., Harton, G.L., Lavery, S.A., Moutou, C., Robinson, M.D., Schmutzler, A.G., Scriven, P.N., et al., 2005. ESHRE PGD Consortium ‘Best practice guidelines for clinical preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS)’. Hum. Reprod., 20(1):35-48.

[73]Tzvetkov, M.V., Becker, C., Kulle, B., Nürnberg, P., Brockmöller, J., Wojnowski, L., 2005. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays demonstrate high fidelity of multiple displacement-based whole-genome amplification. Electrophoresis, 26(3):710-715.

[74]Uda, A., Tanabayashi, K., Fujita, O., Hotta, A., Yamamoto, Y., Yamada, A., 2007. Comparison of whole genome amplification methods for detecting pathogenic bacterial genomic DNA using microarray. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis., 60(6):355-361.

[75]Vermeesch, J.R., Fiegler, H., de Leeuw, N., Szuhai, K., Schoumans, J., Ciccone, R., Speleman, F., Rauch, A., Clayton-Smith, J., van Ravenswaaij, C., et al., 2007. Guidelines for molecular karyotyping in constitutional genetic diagnosis. Eur. J. Hum. Genet., 15(11):1105-1114.

[76]Voullaire, L., Wilton, L., Slater, H., Williamson, R., 1999. Detection of aneuploidy in single cells using comparative genomic hybridization. Prenat. Diagn., 19(9):846-851.

[77]Voullaire, L., Wilton, L., McBain, J., Callaghan, T., Williamson, R., 2002. Chromosome abnormalities identified by comparative genomic hybridization in embryos from women with repeated implantation failure. Mol. Hum. Reprod., 8(11):1035-1041.

[78]Walsh, P.S., Erlich, H.A., Higuchi, R., 1992. Preferential PCR amplification of alleles: mechanisms and solutions. Genome Res., 1(4):241-250.

[79]Wells, D., 2004. Advances in preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol., 115(Suppl. 1):S97-S101.

[80]Wells, D., Levy, B., 2003. Cytogenetics in reproductive medicine: the contribution of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). BioEssays, 25(3):289-300.

[81]Wells, D., Sherlock, J.K., Handyside, A.H., Delhanty, J.D., 1999. Detailed chromosomal and molecular genetic analysis of single cells by whole genome amplification and comparative genomic hybridisation. Nucleic Acids Res., 27(4):1214-1218.

[82]Wells, D., Escudero, T., Levy, B., Hirschhorn, K., Delhanty, J.D., Munné, S., 2002. First clinical application of comparative genomic hybridization and polar body testing for preimplantation genetic diagnosis of aneuploidy. Fertil. Steril., 78(3):543-549.

[83]Wells, D., Alfarawati, S., Fragouli, E., 2008. Use of comprehensive chromosomal screening for embryo assessment: microarrays and CGH. Mol. Hum. Reprod., 14(12):703-710.

[84]Wilton, L., 2005. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and chromosome analysis of blastomeres using comparative genome hybridization. Hum. Reprod. Update, 11(1):33-41.

[85]Xu, C.M., Jin, F., Huang, H.F., Tao, Y., Ye, Y.H., 2001. Single cell analysis of dystrophin and SRY gene by using whole genome amplification. J. Reprod. Contraception, 12(3):154-161.

[86]Zeng, J., Xu, Y., Wang, D., Zou, H., Deng, Z., Yang, B., 2009. An analysis of the reason for HLA-C allele dropout in five samples by sequence-based typing. Chin. J. Med. Genetics, 26(5):562-566 (in Chinese).

[87]Zhang, L., Cui, X., Schmitt, K., Hubert, R., Navidi, W., Arnheim, N., 1992. Whole genome amplification from a single cell: implications for genetic analysis. PNAS, 89(13):5847-5855.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2024 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE