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Bio-Design and Manufacturing  2022 Vol.5 No.1 P.133-140

http://doi.org/10.1007/s42242-021-00164-1


From hardware store to hospital: a COVID-19-inspired, cost-effective, open-source, in vivo-validated ventilator for use in resource-scarce regions


Author(s):  Matthew H. Park, Yuanjia Zhu, Hanjay Wang, Nicholas A. Tran, Jinsuh Jung, Michael J. Paulsen, Annabel M. Imbrie-Moore, Samuel Baker, Robert Wilkerson, Mateo Marin-Cuartas, Danielle M. Mullis & Y. Joseph Woo

Affiliation(s):  Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University, Falk Cardiovascular Research Building CV-235, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA, 94305-5407, USA; more

Corresponding email(s):   joswoo@stanford.edu

Key Words:  COVID-19, Ventilator, Open-source


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Matthew H. Park, Yuanjia Zhu, Hanjay Wang, Nicholas A. Tran, Jinsuh Jung, Michael J. Paulsen, Annabel M. Imbrie-Moore, Samuel Baker, Robert Wilkerson, Mateo Marin-Cuartas, Danielle M. Mullis & Y. Joseph Woo. From hardware store to hospital: a COVID-19-inspired, cost-effective, open-source, in vivo-validated ventilator for use in resource-scarce regions[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science D, 2022, 5(1): 133-140.

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Abstract: 
Resource-scarce regions with serious COVID-19 outbreaks do not have enough ventilators to support critically ill patients, and these shortages are especially devastating in developing countries. To help alleviate this strain, we have designed and tested the accessible low-barrier in vivo-validated economical ventilator (ALIVE Vent), a COVID-19-inspired, cost-effective, open-source, in vivo-validated solution made from commercially available components. The ALIVE Vent operates using compressed oxygen and air to drive inspiration, while two solenoid valves ensure one-way flow and precise cycle timing. The device was functionally tested and profiled using a variable resistance and compliance artificial lung and validated in anesthetized large animals. Our functional test results revealed its effective operation under a wide variety of ventilation conditions defined by the American Association of Respiratory Care guidelines for ventilator stockpiling. The large animal test showed that our ventilator performed similarly if not better than a standard ventilator in maintaining optimal ventilation status. The FiO2, respiratory rate, inspiratory to expiratory time ratio, positive-end expiratory pressure, and peak inspiratory pressure were successfully maintained within normal, clinically validated ranges, and the animals were recovered without any complications. In regions with limited access to ventilators, the ALIVE Vent can help alleviate shortages, and we have ensured that all used materials are publicly available. While this pandemic has elucidated enormous global inequalities in healthcare, innovative, cost-effective solutions aimed at reducing socio-economic barriers, such as the ALIVE Vent, can help enable access to prompt healthcare and life saving technology on a global scale and beyond COVID-19.

斯坦福大学Y. Joseph Woo等 | 从五金店到医院:适用于疫情期间且经过临床验证的高性价比且易于获取的呼吸机

本研究论文聚焦低成本、易制的呼吸机系统的研发工作。新冠疫情严重暴发的资源匮乏地区没有足够的呼吸机来支持危重病人,这些设备短缺在发展中国家尤其具有破坏性。为了帮助缓解这场疫情带来的影响,我们设计并测试了易制造、低门槛且经过体内验证的经济型呼吸机(ALIVE Vent)。这是一种受本次疫情启发,具有成本效益、开源且经体内验证的解决方案,由市售组件制成。ALIVE Vent使用压缩氧气和空气来驱动吸气,而两个电磁阀可确保单向流动和精确的循环时间控制。该装置使用可变阻尼和顺应性人工肺进行功能测试和剖析,并在麻醉的大型动物中进行了验证。其功能测试结果显示,在美国呼吸护理协会呼吸机储备指南规定的各种通气条件下,其能有效运行。大型动物试验表明,我们的呼吸机在保持最佳通气状态方面的表现与标准呼吸机相似或更优。给氧分率、呼吸频率、吸气-呼气时间比、呼气正端压力和吸气峰值压力成功维持在正常、临床验证的范围内,动物恢复无并发症。在呼吸机使用受限的地区,ALIVE呼吸机可以帮助缓解其短缺问题,我们确保所有使用过的材料都可公开获得。虽然这次疫情的大流行已经揭露了全球医疗保健领域的巨大不平等现状,但旨在减少社会经济障碍的创新,具有成本效益的解决方案,如ALIVE Vent,可以帮助在全球范围内以及COVID-19之后获得及时的医疗保健和救生技术。

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