Full Text:   <4217>

Summary:  <1194>

CLC number: TP27

On-line Access: 2020-05-18

Received: 2020-04-07

Revision Accepted: 2020-04-19

Crosschecked: 2020-04-27

Cited: 0

Clicked: 4247

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714


Kai Cai


-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering  2020 Vol.21 No.5 P.693-704


Warehouse automation by logistic robotic networks: a cyber-physical control approach

Author(s):  Kai Cai

Affiliation(s):  Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585, Japan

Corresponding email(s):   kai.cai@eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp

Key Words:  Discrete-event systems, Cyber-physical systems, Robotic networks, Warehouse automation, Logistics

Kai Cai. Warehouse automation by logistic robotic networks: a cyber-physical control approach[J]. Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering, 2020, 21(5): 693-704.

@article{title="Warehouse automation by logistic robotic networks: a cyber-physical control approach",
author="Kai Cai",
journal="Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Warehouse automation by logistic robotic networks: a cyber-physical control approach
%A Kai Cai
%J Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering
%V 21
%N 5
%P 693-704
%@ 2095-9184
%D 2020
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/FITEE.2000156

T1 - Warehouse automation by logistic robotic networks: a cyber-physical control approach
A1 - Kai Cai
J0 - Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering
VL - 21
IS - 5
SP - 693
EP - 704
%@ 2095-9184
Y1 - 2020
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/FITEE.2000156

In this paper we provide a tutorial on the background of warehouse automation using robotic networks and survey relevant work in the literature. We present a new cyber-physical control method that achieves safe, deadlock-free, efficient, and adaptive behavior of multiple robots serving the goods-to-man logistic operations. A central piece of this method is the incremental supervisory control design algorithm, which is computationally scalable with respect to the number of robots. Finally, we provide a case study on 30 robots with changing conditions to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.





Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]Arsie A, Savla K, Frazzoli E, 2009. Efficient routing algorithms for multiple vehicles with no explicit communications. IEEE Trans Autom Contr, 54(10):2302-2317.

[2]Belta C, Bicchi A, Egerstedt M, et al., 2007. Symbolic planning and control of robot motion [grand challenges of robotics. IEEE Robot Autom Mag, 14(1):61-70.

[3]Belta C, Yordanov B, Gol EA, 2017. Formal Methods for Discrete-Time Dynamical Systems. Springer, Cham, Switzerland.

[4]Bertsimas DJ, van Ryzin G, 1991. A stochastic and dynamic vehicle routing problem in the Euclidean plane. Oper Res, 39(4):601-615.

[5]Bertsimas DJ, van Ryzin G, 1993. Stochastic and dynamic vehicle routing in the Euclidean plane with multiple capacitated vehicles. Oper Res, 41(1):60-76.

[6]Bullo F, Frazzoli E, Pavone M, et al., 2011. Dynamic vehicle routing for robotic systems. Proc IEEE, 99(9):1482-1504.

[7]Cai K, Wonham WM, 2016. Supervisor Localization: a Top-Down Approach to Distributed Control of Discrete-Event Systems. Springer, Cham, Switzerland.

[8]Cai K, Wonham WM, 2020. Supervisory control of discrete-event systems. In: Baillieul J, Samad T (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Systems and Control. Springer, London, UK.

[9]Ĉáp M, Novák P, Kleiner A, et al., 2015. Prioritized planning algorithms for trajectory coordination of multiple mobile robots. IEEE Trans Autom Sci Eng, 12(3):835-849.

[10]Chen YS, Ding XC, Stefanescu A, et al., 2012. Formal approach to the deployment of distributed robotic teams. IEEE Trans Robot, 28(1):158-171.

[11]Chung SL, Lafortune S, Lin F, 1992. Limited lookahead policies in supervisory control of discrete event systems. IEEE Trans Autom Contr, 37(12):1921-1935.

[12]Chung SL, Lafortune S, Lin F, 1993. Recursive computation of limited lookahead supervisory controls for discrete event systems. Discr Event Dynam Syst, 3(1):71-100.

[13]Chung SL, Lafortune S, Lin F, 1994. Supervisory control using variable lookahead policies. Discr Event Dynam Syst, 4(3):237-268.

[14]Gohari P, Wonham WM, 2000. On the complexity of supervisory control design in the RW framework. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern, 30(5):643-652.

[15]Goranko V, Galton A, 2015. Temporal Logic. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, USA.

[16]Grädel E, Thomas W, Wilke T, 2002. Automata, Logics, and Infinite Games. Springer, Germany.

[17]Hadj-Alouane NB, Lafortune S, Lin F, 1996. Centralized and distributed algorithms for on-line synthesis of maximal control policies under partial observation. Discr Event Dynam Syst, 6(4):379-427.

[18]Hart PE, Nilsson NJ, Raphael B, 1968. A formal basis for the heuristic determination of minimum cost paths. IEEE Trans Syst Sci Cybern, 4(2):100-107.

[19]Karaman S, Walter MR, Perez A, et al., 2011. Anytime motion planning using the RRT. Proc IEEE Int Conf on Robotics and Automation, p.1478-1483.

[20]Kloetzer M, Belta C, 2008. A fully automated framework for control of linear systems from temporal logic specifications. IEEE Trans Autom Contr, 53(1):287-297.

[21]Kress-Gazit H, Fainekos GE, Pappas GJ, 2009. Temporal-logic-based reactive mission and motion planning. IEEE Trans Robot, 25(6):1370-1381.

[22]Kroger F, Merz S, 2010. Temporal Logic and State Systems. Springer, New York, USA.

[23]Kumar R, Cheung HM, Marcus SI, 1998. Extension based limited lookahead supervision of discrete event systems. Automatica, 34(11):1327-1344.

[24]LaValle SM, 2006. Planning Algorithms. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA.

[25]LaValle SM, Kuffner JJJr, 2001. Randomized kinodynamic planning. Int J Robot Res, 20(5):378-400.

[26]Manna Z, Pnueli A, 1992. The Temporal Logic of Reactive and Concurrent Systems. Springer, New York, USA.

[27]Pinedo ML, 2012. Scheduling: Theory, Algorithms, and Systems (4th Ed.). Springer, New York, USA.

[28]Ramadge PJ, Wonham WM, 1987. Supervisory control of a class of discrete event processes. SIAM J Contr Optim, 25(1):206-230.

[29]Ramadge PJ, Wonham WM, 1989. The control of discrete event systems. Proc IEEE, 77(1):81-98.

[30]Smith SL, Pavone M, Bullo F, et al., 2010. Dynamic vehicle routing with priority classes of stochastic demands. SIAM J Contr Optim, 48(5):3224-3245.

[31]Standley T, 2010. Finding optimal solutions to cooperative pathfinding problems. Proc 24th AAAI Conf on Artificial Intelligence, p.173-178.

[32]Standley T, Korf R, 2011. Complete algorithms for cooperative pathfinding problems. Proc 22nd Int Joint Conf on Artificial Intelligence, p.668-673.

[33]Tatsumoto Y, Shiraishi M, Cai K, et al., 2018a. Application of online supervisory control of discrete-event systems to multi-robot warehouse automation. Contr Eng Pract, 81:97-104.

[34]Tatsumoto Y, Shiraishi M, Cai K, 2018b. Application of supervisory control theory with warehouse automation case study. Syst Contr Inform, 62(6):203-208.

[35]Tractica, 2017. Warehousing and Logistics Robots: Global Market Analysis and Forecasts. https://www.tractica.com/research/warehousing-and-logistics-robots

[36]{mbox{Westernacher Knowledge Series, 2017. The Trend Towards}} mboxWarehouse Automation. https://westernacher-consulting.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Whitepaper_Trend_to_Automation_FINAL_s.pdf

[37]Wonham WM, Cai K, 2019. Supervisory Control of Discrete-Event Systems. Springer, Cham, Switzerland.

[38]Wonham WM, Ramadge PJ, 1987. On the supremal controllable sublanguage of a given language. SIAM J Contr Optim, 25(3):637-659.

[39]Wonham WM, Cai K, Rudie K, 2018. Supervisory control of discrete-event systems: a brief history. Ann Rev Contr, 45:250-256.

[40]Wurman PR, D’Andrea R, Mountz M, 2008. Coordinating hundreds of cooperative, autonomous vehicles in warehouses. AI Mag, 29(1):9-19.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2024 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE