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On-line Access: 2021-09-10

Received: 2020-05-31

Revision Accepted: 2021-02-17

Crosschecked: 2021-08-17

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Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714


Iftikhar Ahmad


Fausto Pedro García Márquez


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Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering  2021 Vol.22 No.9 P.1247-1259


A cooperative heterogeneous vehicular clustering framework for efficiency improvement

Author(s):  Iftikhar Ahmad, Rafidah Md Noor, Zaheed Ahmed, Umm-e-Habiba, Naveed Akram, Fausto Pedro García Márquez

Affiliation(s):  Department of Computer Science and Information Technology, Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Mirpur-10250 (AJK), Pakistan; more

Corresponding email(s):   ify_ia@yahoo.com, faustopedro.garcia@uclm.es

Key Words:  Vehicular cluster, Heterogeneity, Cooperation, Formal verification, System model

Iftikhar Ahmad, Rafidah Md Noor, Zaheed Ahmed, Umm-e-Habiba , Naveed Akram, Fausto Pedro García Márquez. A cooperative heterogeneous vehicular clustering framework for efficiency improvement[J]. Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering, 2021, 22(9): 1247-1259.

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publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

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%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/FITEE.2000260

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A1 - Iftikhar Ahmad
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A1 - Zaheed Ahmed
A1 - Umm-e-Habiba
A1 - Naveed Akram
A1 - Fausto Pedro García Márquez
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Heterogeneous vehicular clustering integrates multiple types of communication networks to work efficiently for various vehicular applications. One popular form of heterogeneous network is the integration of long-term evolution (LTE) and dedicated short-range communication. The heterogeneity of such a network infrastructure and the non-cooperation involved in sharing cost/data are potential problems to solve. A vehicular clustering framework is one solution to these problems, but the framework should be formally verified and validated before being deployed in the real world. To solve these issues, first, we present a heterogeneous framework, named destination and interest-aware clustering, for vehicular clustering that integrates vehicular ad hoc networks with the LTE network for improving road traffic efficiency. Then, we specify a model system of the proposed framework. The model is formally verified to evaluate its performance at the functional level using a model checking technique. To evaluate the performance of the proposed framework at the micro-level, a heterogeneous simulation environment is created by integrating state-of-the-art tools. The comparison of the simulation results with those of other known approaches shows that our proposed framework performs better.


Iftikhar AHMAD1,2,Rafidah Md NOOR2,Zaheed AHMED3,Umm-e-HABIBA3,Naveed AKRAM4, 5,Fausto Pedro GARCíA MáRQUEZ6


Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


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