Full Text:   <1103>

Summary:  <1037>

CLC number: TP311

On-line Access: 2020-11-13

Received: 2020-10-10

Revision Accepted: 2020-10-16

Crosschecked: 2020-10-26

Cited: 0

Clicked: 2169

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714


Zhiming Liu


-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering  2020 Vol.21 No.11 P.1535-1553


Human-cyber-physical systems: concepts, challenges, and research opportunities

Author(s):  Zhiming Liu, Ji Wang

Affiliation(s):  RISE-Centre for Research and Innovation in Software Engineering, School of Computer and Information Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   zhimingliu88@swu.edu.cn, jiwang@ios.ac.cn

Key Words:  Abstractions, Architecture modelling, Evolution, Software-defined technology

Share this article to: More |Next Article >>>

Zhiming Liu, Ji Wang. Human-cyber-physical systems: concepts, challenges, and research opportunities[J]. Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering, 2020, 21(11): 1535-1553.

@article{title="Human-cyber-physical systems: concepts, challenges, and research opportunities",
author="Zhiming Liu, Ji Wang",
journal="Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Human-cyber-physical systems: concepts, challenges, and research opportunities
%A Zhiming Liu
%A Ji Wang
%J Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering
%V 21
%N 11
%P 1535-1553
%@ 2095-9184
%D 2020
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/FITEE.2000537

T1 - Human-cyber-physical systems: concepts, challenges, and research opportunities
A1 - Zhiming Liu
A1 - Ji Wang
J0 - Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering
VL - 21
IS - 11
SP - 1535
EP - 1553
%@ 2095-9184
Y1 - 2020
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/FITEE.2000537

In this perspective article, we first recall the historic background of human-cyber-physical systems (HCPSs), and then introduce and clarify important concepts. We discuss the key challenges in establishing the scientific foundation from a system engineering point of view, including (1) complex heterogeneity, (2) lack of appropriate abstractions, (3) dynamic black-box integration of heterogeneous systems, (4) complex requirements for functionalities, performance, and quality of services, and (5) design, implementation, and maintenance of HCPS to meet requirements. Then we propose four research directions to tackle the challenges, including (1) abstractions and computational theory of HCPS, (2) theories and methods of HCPS architecture modelling, (3) specification and verification of model properties, and (4) software-defined HCPS. The article also serves as the editorial of this special section on cyber-physical systems and summarises the four articles included in this special section.





Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]Alur R, Courcoubetis C, Halbwachs N, et al., 1995. The algorithmic analysis of hybrid systems. Theor Comput Sci, 138(1):3-34.

[2]Baheti R, Gill H, 2011. Cyber-physical systems. Impact Contr Technol, 12(1):161-166.

[3]Banerjee A, Venkatasubramanian KK, Mukherjee T, et al., 2012. Ensuring safety, security, and sustainability of mission-critical cyber-physical systems. Proc IEEE, 100(1):283-299.

[4]Broy M, Cengarle MV, Geisberger E, 2012. Cyber-physical systems: imminent challenges. Proc 17th Monterey Workshop, p.1-28.

[5]Calvaresi D, Marinoni M, Sturm A, et al., 2017. The challenge of real-time multi-agent systems for enabling IoT and CPS. Proc Int Conf on Web Intelligence, p.356-364.

[6]Chen D, Doumeingts G, Vernadat F, 2008. Architectures for enterprise integration and interoperability: past, present and future. Comput Ind, 59(7):647-659.

[7]Chen X, Liu Z, 2017. Towards interface-driven design of evolving component-based architectures. In: Hinchey M, Bowen JP, Olderog ER (Eds.), Provably Correct Systems. Springer, Cham, p.121-148.

[8]Darabseh A, Al-Ayyoub M, Jararweh Y, et al., 2015. SDStorage: a software defined storage experimental framework. IEEE Int Conf on Cloud Engineering, p.341-346.

[9]Dressler F, 2018. Cyber physical social systems: towards deeply integrated hybridized systems. Proc Int Conf on Computing, Networking and Communications, p.420-424.

[10]Gill H, 2010. Cyber-physical systems: beyond ES, SNs, SCADA. Proc Trusted Computing in Embedded Systems Workshop.

[11]Giloi WK, 1997. Konrad Zuse‘s Plankalkül: the first high-level, “non von Neumann” programming language. IEEE Ann History Comput, 19(2):17-24.

[12]Gunes V, Peter S, Givargis T, et al., 2014. A survey on concepts, applications, and challenges in cyber-physical systems. KSII Trans Intern Inform Syst, 8(12):4242-4268.

[13]He JF, 1994. From CSP to hybrid systems. In: Roscoe AW (Ed.), A Classical Mind: Essays in Honour of C. A. R. Hoare. Prentice Hall International, New York, USA, p.171-189.

[14]Hoare CAR, 1985. Communicating Sequential Processes. Prentice Hall International, Englewood Cliffs, USA.

[15]Hu J, Liu Z, Reed GM, et al., 2008. Ensemble engineering and emergence. In: Wirsing M, Banâtre JP, Hölzl M, et al. (Eds.), Software-Intensive Systems and New Computing Paradigms: Challenges and Visions. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p.162-178.

[16]IEEE, 1990. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: a Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. IEEE, New York, USA.

[17]Jararweh Y, Al-Ayyoub M, Darabseh A, et al., 2015. SDIoT: a software defined based Internet of Things framework. J Amb Intell Human Comput, 6(4):453-461.

[18]Jararweh Y, Al-Ayyoub M, AląŕDarabseh, et al., 2016. Software defined cloud: survey, system and evaluation. Fut Gener Comput Syst, 58:56-74.

[19]Khaitan SK, McCalley JD, 2015. Design techniques and applications of cyberphysical systems: a survey. IEEE Syst J, 9(2):350-365.

[20]Kindberg T, Fox A, 2002. System software for ubiquitous computing. IEEE Perv Comput, 1(1):70-81.

[21]Kubicek H, Cimander R, Scholl HJ, 2011. Layers of interoperability. In: Kubicek H, Cimander R, Scholl HJ (Eds.), Organizational Interoperability in E-Government. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

[22]Lee EA, 2006. Cyber-physical systems—are computing foundations adequate? NSF Workshop on Cyber-Physical Systems.

[23]Lee EA, 2008. Cyber physical systems: design challenges. Proc 11th IEEE Int Symp on Object and Component-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing, p.363-369.

[24]Lee EA, 2010. CPS foundations. Proc 47th Design Automation Conf, p.737-742.

[25]Lee EA, Neuendorffer S, Wirthlin MJ, 2003. Actor-oriented design of embedded hardware and software systems. J Circ Syst Comput, 12(3):231-260.

[26]Lee J, Lapira E, Bagheri B, et al., 2013. Recent advances and trends in predictive manufacturing systems in big data environment. Manuf Lett, 1(1):38-41.

[27]Lindsey CH, Boom HJ, 1978. A modules and separate compilation facility for ALGOL 68. ALGOL Bull, (43):19-53.

[28]Liskov B, Zilles S, 1974. Programming with abstract data types. Proc ACM SIGPLAN Symp on Very High Level Languages, p.50-59.

[29]Liu Z, Chen XH, 2014. Model-driven design of object and component systems. Proc 1st Int School Engineering Trustworthy Software Systems, p.152-255.

[30]Liu Z, Joseph M, 1996. Verification of fault tolerance and real time. Proc 26th Annual Int Symp on Fault-Tolerant Computing, p.220-229.

[31]Liu Z, Joseph M, 1999. Specification and verification of fault-tolerance, timing, and scheduling. ACM Trans Program Lang Syst, 21(1):46-89.

[32]Liu Z, Ravn AP, Li X, 1998. Verifying duration properties of timed transition systems. Proc IFIP TC2/WG2.2, 2.3 Int Conf on Programming Concepts and Methods, p.327-345.

[33]Liu Z, Morisset C, Stolz V, 2008. A component-based access control monitor. Proc 3rd Int Symp on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification and Validation, p.339-353.

[34]Liu Z, Bowen JP, Liu B, et al., 2019. Software abstractions and human-cyber-physical systems architecture modelling. Proc 5th Int School Engineering Trustworthy Software Systems, p.159-219.

[35]Lu YJ, Cecil J, 2015. An Internet of Things (IoT) based cyber physical framework for advanced manufacturing. Proc Move to Meaningful Internet Systems: OTM 2015 Workshops, p.66-74.

[36]Lynch N, Segala R, Vaandrager F, 2003. Hybrid I/O automata. Inform Comput, 185(1):103-157.

[37]Lynch NA, 1996. Distributed Algorithms. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco, USA.

[38]Mei H, Guo Y, 2018. Toward ubiquitous operating systems: a software-defined perspective. Computer, 51(1):50-56.

[39]Milner R, 1989. Communication and Concurrency. Prentice Hall International, New York, USA.

[40]Molina E, Jacob E, 2018. Software-defined networking in cyber-physical systems: a survey. Comput Electr Eng, 66:407-419.

[41]NSF, 2006. NSF Workshop on Cyber-Physical Systems. Austin, Texas, USA.

[42]Nygaard K, Dahl OJ, 1978. The development of the SIMULA languages. ACM SIGPLAN Not, 13(8):245-272.

[43]Palomar E, Chen XH, Liu Z, et al., 2016. Component-based modelling for scalable smart city systems interoperability: a case study on integrating energy demand response systems. Sensors, 16(11):1810.

[44]Parnas DL, 1972. On the criteria to be used in decomposing systems into modules. Commun ACM, 15(12):1053-1058.

[45]Rajkumar R, Lee I, Sha L, et al., 2010. Cyber-physical systems: the next computing revolution. Proc 47th Design Automation Conf, p.731-736.

[46]Romero D, Bernus P, Noran O, et al., 2016. The operator 4.0: human cyber-physical systems & adaptive automation towards human-automation symbiosis work systems. Proc IFIP WG 5.7 Int Conf on Advances in Production Management Systems, p.677-686.

[47]Sangiovanni-Vincentelli A, Damm W, Passerone R, 2012. Taming Dr. Frankenstein: contract-based design for cyber-physical systems. Eur J Contr, 18(3):217-238.

[48]Schätz B, 2016. Platforms for cyber-physical systems—fractal operating system and integrated development environment for the physical world. Proc 3rd Int Workshop on Emerging Ideas and Trends in Engineering of Cyber-Physical Systems, p.1-4.

[49]Sha L, Gopalakrishnan S, Liu X, et al., 2008. Cyber-physical systems: a new frontier. Proc IEEE Int Conf on Sensor Networks, Ubiquitous, and Trustworthy Computing, p.1-9.

[50]Sheth A, Anantharam P, Henson C, 2013. Physical-cyber-social computing: an early 21st century approach. IEEE Intell Syst, 28(1):78-82.

[51]Sowe SK, Simmon E, Zettsu K, et al., 2016. Cyber-physical-human systems: putting people in the loop. IT Prof, 18(1):10-13.

[52]Tan Y, Vuran MC, Goddard S, 2009. Spatio-temporal event model for cyber-physical systems. Proc 29th IEEE Int Conf on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, p.44-50.

[53]Tröger P, Werner M, Richling J, 2015. Cyber-physical operating systems—what are the right abstractions? Proc 4th Mediterranean Conf on Embedded Computing, p.13-16.

[54]Wang SL, Zhan NJ, Zou L, 2015. An improved HHL prover: an interactive theorem prover for hybrid systems. Proc 17th Int Conf on Formal Engineering Methods, p.382-399.

[55]Weiser M, 1991. The computer for the 21st century. Sci Am, 265(3):94-104.

[56]Wheeler DJ, 1952. The use of sub-routines in programmes. Proc ACM National Meeting, p.235.

[57]Wilkes MV, Wheeler DJ, Gill S, 1951. The Preparation of Programs for an Electronic Digital Computer. Addison-Wesley, Wokingham, UK.

[58]Wirsing M, Banatre JP, Hölzl M, et al., 2008. Software-Intensive Systems and New Computing Paradigms—Challenges and Visions. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

[59]Xu LD, Duan L, 2019. Big data for cyber physical systems in Industry 4.0: a survey. Enterp Inform Syst, 13(2):148-169.

[60]Zegzhda DP, 2016. Sustainability as a criterion for information security in cyber-physical systems. Autom Contr Comput Sci, 50(8):813-819.

[61]Zeng DZ, Gu L, Pan SL, et al., 2020. Software Defined Systems: Sensing, Communication and Computation. Springer, Cham, Germany.

[62]Zeng J, Yang LT, Lin M, et al., 2020. A survey: cyber-physical-social systems and their system-level design methodology. Fut Gener Comput Syst, 105:1028-1042.

[63]Zhang MM, Liu Z, Morisset C, et al., 2009. Design and verification of fault-tolerant components. In: Butler M, Jones C, Romanovsky A, et al. (Eds.), Methods, Models and Tools for Fault Tolerance. Springer, Berlin, p.57-84.

[64]Zhou CC, Hoare CAR, Ravn AP, 1991. A calculus of durations. Inform Process Lett, 40(5):269-276.

[65]Zhou J, Zhou YH, Wang BC, et al., 2019. Human–cyber–physical systems (HCPSs) in the context of new-generation intelligent manufacturing. Engineering, 5(4):624-636.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2022 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE