Full Text:   <2364>

CLC number: Q13

On-line Access: 

Received: 2005-11-01

Revision Accepted: 2006-03-01

Crosschecked: 0000-00-00

Cited: 6

Clicked: 5027

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2006 Vol.7 No.6 P.467-474

http://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.2006.B0467


Ciona intestinalis as an emerging model organism: its regeneration under controlled conditions and methodology for egg dechorionation


Author(s):  LIU Li-ping, XIANG Jian-hai, DONG Bo, NATARAJAN Pavanasam, YU Kui-jie, CAI Nan-er

Affiliation(s):  Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   patrick-01@sohu.com, jhxiang@ms.qdio.ac.cn

Key Words:  Ciona intestinalis, Model organism, Laboratory culture, Embryogenesis


LIU Li-ping, XIANG Jian-hai, DONG Bo, NATARAJAN Pavanasam, YU Kui-jie, CAI Nan-er. Ciona intestinalis as an emerging model organism: its regeneration under controlled conditions and methodology for egg dechorionation[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2006, 7(6): 467-474.

@article{title="Ciona intestinalis as an emerging model organism: its regeneration under controlled conditions and methodology for egg dechorionation",
author="LIU Li-ping, XIANG Jian-hai, DONG Bo, NATARAJAN Pavanasam, YU Kui-jie, CAI Nan-er",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
volume="7",
number="6",
pages="467-474",
year="2006",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",
doi="10.1631/jzus.2006.B0467"
}

%0 Journal Article
%T Ciona intestinalis as an emerging model organism: its regeneration under controlled conditions and methodology for egg dechorionation
%A LIU Li-ping
%A XIANG Jian-hai
%A DONG Bo
%A NATARAJAN Pavanasam
%A YU Kui-jie
%A CAI Nan-er
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 7
%N 6
%P 467-474
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2006
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.2006.B0467

TY - JOUR
T1 - Ciona intestinalis as an emerging model organism: its regeneration under controlled conditions and methodology for egg dechorionation
A1 - LIU Li-ping
A1 - XIANG Jian-hai
A1 - DONG Bo
A1 - NATARAJAN Pavanasam
A1 - YU Kui-jie
A1 - CAI Nan-er
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 7
IS - 6
SP - 467
EP - 474
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2006
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.2006.B0467


Abstract: 
The ascidian Ciona intestinalis is a model organism of developmental and evolutionary biology and may provide crucial clues concerning two fundamental matters, namely, how chordates originated from the putative deuterostome ancestor and how advanced chordates originated from the simplest chordates. In this paper, a whole-life-span culture of C. intestinalis was conducted. Fed with the diet combination of dry Spirulina, egg yolk, Dicrateria sp., edible yeast and weaning diet for shrimp, C. intestinalis grew up to average 59 mm and matured after 60 d cultivation. This culture process could be repeated using the artificially cultured mature ascidians as material. When the fertilized eggs were maintained under 10, 15, 20, 25 °C, they hatched within 30 h, 22 h, 16 h and 12 h 50 min respectively experiencing cleavage, blastulation, gastrulation, neurulation, tailbud stage and tadpole stage. The tadpole larvae were characterized as typical but simplified chordates because of their dorsal nerve cord, notochord and primordial brain. After 8~24 h freely swimming, the tadpole larvae settled on the substrates and metamorphosized within 1~2 d into filter feeding sessile juvenile ascidians. In addition, unfertilized eggs were successfully dechorionated in filtered seawater containing 1% Tripsin, 0.25% EDTA at pH of 10.5 within 40 min. After fertilization, the dechorionated eggs developed well and hatched at normal hatching rate. In conclusion, this paper presented feasible methodology for rearing the tadpole larvae of C. intestinalis into sexual maturity under controlled conditions and detailed observations on the embryogenesis of the laboratory cultured ascidians, which will facilitate developmental and genetic research using this model system.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article

Reference

[1] Awazu, S., Sasaki, A., Matsuoka, T., Satoh, N., Sasakura, Y., 2004. An enhancer trap in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis identifies enhancers of its Musashi orthologous gene. Dev. Biol., 275(2):459-472.

[2] Bertrand, V., Hudson, C., Caillol, D., Popocici, C., Lemaire, P., 2003. Neural tissue in ascidian embryosis induced by FGF9/16/20, acting via a combination of maternal GATA and Ets transcription factors. Cell, 115(5):615-627.

[3] Chiba, S., Sasaki, A., Nakayama, A., Takamura, K., Satoh, N., 2004. Development of Ciona intestinalis juveniles (through 2nd ascidian stage). Zoolog. Sci., 21(3):285-298.

[4] Conklin, E.G., 1905. The organization and cell-lineage of the ascidian egg. J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 2(13):1-19.

[5] Corbo, J.C., Levine, M., Zeller, R.W., 1997. Characterization of a notochord-specific enhancer from the Brachyury promoter region of the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis. Development, 124:589-602.

[6] Corbo, J.C., Di Gregorio, A., Levine, M., 2001. The ascidian as a model organism in developmental and evolutionary biology. Cell, 106(5):535-538.

[7] Dehal, P., Satou, Y., Campbell, R.K., Chapman, J., Degnan, B., de Tomaso, A., Davidson, B., Di Gregorio, A., Gelpke, M., Goodstein, D.M., et al., 2002. The draft genome of Ciona intestinalis: insights into chordate and vertebrate origins. Science, 298(5601):2157-2167.

[8] Di Gregorio, A., Levine, M., 1998. Ascidian embryogenesis and the origins of the chordate body plan. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev., 8(4):457-463.

[9] Fujiwara, S., Maeda, Y., Shin-I, T., Kohara, Y., Takatori, N., Satou, Y., Satoh, N., 2002. Gene expression profiles in Ciona intestinalis cleavage-stage embryos. Mech. Develop., 112(1-2):115-127.

[10] He, S.S., Cheng, Y.X., 2002. The drug value and progress in study of ascidian. J. Shanghai Fish Univ., 11(2):167-170 (in Chinese).

[11] Inaba, K., Padma, P., Satouh, Y., Shin-I, T., Kohara, Y., Satoh, N., Satou, Y., 2002. EST analysis of gene expression in testis of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Mol. Reprod. Dev., 62(4):431-445.

[12] Inada, K., Horie, T., Kusakabe, T., Tsuda, M., 2003. Targeted knockdown of an opsin gene inhibits the swimming behaviour photoresponse of ascidian larvae. Neurosci. Lett., 347(3):167-170.

[13] Kano, S., Chiba, S., Satoh, N., 2001. Genetic relatedness and variability in inbred and wild populations of the solitary ascidian Ciona intestinalis revealed by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction. Mar. Biotechnol., 3(1):58-67.

[14] Kawai, N., Takahashi, H., Nishida, H., Yokosawa, H., 2005. Regulation of NF-κB/Rel by IκB is essential for ascidian notochord formation. Dev. Biol., 277(1):80-91.

[15] Kusakabe, T., Yoshida, R., Isao Kawakami, I., Kusakabe, R., Mochizuki, Y., Lixy Yamada, L., Shin-I, T., Kohara, Y., Satoh, N., Tsuda, M., atou, Y., 2002. Gene expression profiles in tadpole larvae of Ciona intestinalis. Dev. Biol., 242(2):188-203.

[16] Mita-Miyazawa, I., Ikegami, S., Satoh, N., 1985. Histospecific acetylcholinesterase development in the presumptive muscle cells isolated from 16-cell-stage ascidian embryos with respect to the number of DNA replications. J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol., 87:1-12.

[17] Moody, R., Davis, S.W., Cubas, F., Smith, W.C., 1999. Isolation of developmental mutants of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Molecular and General Genetics MGG, 262(1):199-206.

[18] Morgan, T.H., 1940. An interim report on cross and self fertilization in Ciona. J. Exp. Zool., 85(1):1-32.

[19] Morgan, T.H., 1945. The conditions that lead to normal or abnormal development of Ciona. Biol. Bull., 88:50-62.

[20] Nakatani, Y., Moody, R., Smith, W.C., 1999. Mutation affecting tail and notochord development in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Development, 126:3293-3301.

[21] Nishida, H., 1987. Cell lineage analysis in ascidian embryos by intracellular injection of a tracer enzyme. III. Up to the tissue restricted stage. Dev. Biol., 121(2):526-541.

[22] Nishida, H., 2002. Patterning the marginal zone of early ascidian embryos: localized maternal mRNA and inductive interactions. Bio. Essays., 24:613-624.

[23] Nishikata, T., Yamada, L., Mochizuki, Y., Satou, Y., Shin-I, T., Kohara, Y., Satoh, N., 2001. Profiles of maternally expressed genes in fertilized eggs of Ciona intestinalis. Dev. Biol., 238(2):315-331.

[24] Pennisi, E., 2002. Comparative biology joins the molecular age. Science, 296(5574):1792-1795.

[25] Satoh, N., 1994. Developmental Biology of Ascidians. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

[26] Satoh, N., Jeffery, W.R., 1995. Chasing tails in ascidians: developmental insights into the origin and evolution of chordates. Trends in Genetics, 11(9):354-359.

[27] Satoh, N., Satou, Y., Davidson, B., Levine, M., 2003. Ciona intestinalis: an emerging model for whole-genome analyses. Trends in Genetics, 19(7):376-381.

[28] Satou, Y., Takatori, N., Yamada, L., Mochizuki, Y., Hamaguchi, M., Ishikawa, H., Chiba, S., Imai, K., Kano, S., Murakami, S.D., et al., 2001a. Gene expression profiles in Ciona intestinalis tailbud embryos. Development, 128:2893-2904.

[29] Satou, Y., Imai, K.S., Satoh, N., 2001b. Action of morpholinos in Ciona embryos. Genesis, 30(3):103-106.

[30] Satou, Y., Yamada, L., Mochizuki, Y., Takatori, N., Kawashima, T., Sasaki, A., Hamaguchi, M., Awazu, S., Yagi, K., Sasakura, Y., et al., 2002. A cDNA resource from the basal chordate Ciona intestinalis. Genesis, 33(4):153-154.

[31] Shida, K., Terajima, D., Uchino, R., Ikawa, S., Ikeda, M., Asano, K., Watanabe, T., Azumi, K., Nonaka, M., Satou, Y., et al., 2003. Hemocytes of Ciona intestinalis express multiple genes involved in innate immune host defense. Biochem. Bioph. Res. Commun., 302(2):207-218.

[32] Simmen, M.W., Leitgeb, S., Clark, V.H., Jones, S.J.M., Bird, A., 1995. Gene number in an invertebrate chordate, Ciona intestinalis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 95:4437-4440.

[33] Sordino, P., Belluzzi, L., De Santis, R., Smith, W.C., 2001. Developmental genetics in primitive chordates. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B, 356(1414):1573-1582.

[34] Tokuoka, M., Imai, K.S., Satou, Y., Satoh, N., 2004. Three distinct lineages of mesenchymal cells in Ciona intestinalis embryos demonstrated by specific gene expression. Dev. Biol., 274(1):211-224.

[35] Tsuda, M., Kusakabe, T., Iwamoto, H., Horie, T., Nakashima, Y., Nakagawa, M., Okunou, K., 2003. Origin of the vertebrate visual cycle: II. Visual cycle proteins are localized in whole brain including photoreceptor cells of a primitive chordate. Vision Res., 43(28):3045-3053.

[36] Tung, T.C., Wu, S.C., Yeh, Y.F., Li, K.S., Hsu, M.C., 1977. Cell differentiation in ascidian studied by nuclear transplantation. Sci. Sinica., 22:222-233.

[37] Wada, H., Satoh, N., 1994. Details of the evolutionary history from invertebrates to vertebrates as deduced from the sequences of 18srDNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 91:1801-1804.

[38] Xiang, J.H., 2003. Marine Biology. Science Press, Beijing, China (in Chinese).

[39] Yagi, K., Satoh, N., Satou, Y., 2004. Identification of downstream genes of the ascidian muscle determinant gene Ci-macho1. Dev. Biol., 274(2):478-489.

[40] Zheng, C.X., 1995. Species diversity of ascidians in the coastal China seas. Chinese Biodivers, 3(4):201-205 (in Chinese).

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion

<1>

Please provide your name, email address and a comment





Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2022 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE