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On-line Access: 2016-01-06

Received: 2015-07-13

Revision Accepted: 2015-11-04

Crosschecked: 2015-12-10

Cited: 3

Clicked: 4216

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

 ORCID:

Hui-ming Wang

http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9344-4609

Shao-xing Qu

http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1217-4644

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Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2016 Vol.17 No.1 P.22-36

http://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.A1500207


Constitutive models of artificial muscles: a review


Author(s):  Hui-ming Wang, Shao-xing Qu

Affiliation(s):  1Key Laboratory of Soft Machines and Smart Devices of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310027, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   wanghuiming@zju.edu.cn, squ@zju.edu.cn

Key Words:  Constitutive model, Artificial muscle, Dielectric elastomer, Responsive gel, Free energy function


Hui-ming Wang, Shao-xing Qu. Constitutive models of artificial muscles: a review[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2016, 17(1): 22-36.

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Abstract: 
artificial muscles are materials which possess muscle-like characteristics; they have many promising applications and many materials have been exploited as artificial muscles. In this review, the artificial muscles discussed are confined to dielectric elastomers and responsive gels. We focus on their constitutive models based on free energy function theory. For dielectric elastomers, both hyperelastic and visco-hyperelastic models are involved. For responsive gels, we consider different kinds of gels, such as hydrogel, pH-sensitive gel, temperature-sensitive gel, polyelectrolyte gel, reactive gel, etc. With an accurate, reliable, and powerful constitutive model, exact theoretical analysis can be achieved and the important intrinsic characteristics of artificial muscle based systems can be revealed.

Soft active materials have emerged as novel materials for diverse applications that can not be addressed by classical hard passive materials. The field of soft active materials is wide and open, where mechanics meets physics, chemistry and machinery. To understand the unique behavior of soft active materials, as well as to aid the design of soft materials based machines, mechanics modeling and analysis plays an important role to tackle these problems, where constitutive law of soft materials is the focus and core of the problem. Focusing on two currently popular soft materials, i.e., dielectric elastomer and hydrogel, the authors present an excellent overview of the constitutive laws developed in the past decades. They formulate and review the constitutive laws of artificial muscles from the pointview of free energy function.The authors give detailed and comprehensive review of the various forms of free energy used in the literature. They also provide their perspectives on the features and limitations of the models.The review is an excellent review and is very helpful for the researcher in this field, particularly those who just start up their research.

人工肌肉本构模型的综述

摘要:人工肌肉是指具有类似肌肉特性的材料,这些材料在外界激励下,可以实现大变形,且响应速度快。本文总结两类人工肌肉本构模型的研究成果:一类是介电高弹体,另一类是响应性凝胶。本文中提到的本构模型仅限于用自由能函数导出的情形。对于介电高弹体材料,分别综述超弹性模型和粘性超弹性模型。在超弹性模型中,列出目前研究中使用较多的一些本构模型的自由能函数具体表达式;比较neo-Hookean、Gent、Arruda-Boyce和Ogden四种模型在单轴拉伸和等双轴拉伸两种情形下的名义应力-伸长曲线;给出了考虑一些重要因素的研究模型,这些因素包括材料可压缩性、取向极化、变介电常数、热耦合、受纤维约束、流体耦合以及空气耦合等。对于响应性凝胶,分别综述水凝胶、pH敏感性凝胶、温度敏感性凝胶、聚电解质凝胶以及反应性凝胶等的本构模型。这些精确、可靠和有效的本构模型,将有助于开展人工肌肉系统的性能分析和预测,甚至揭示其内在特性和本质规律。
关键词:本构模型;人工肌肉;介电高弹体;响应性凝胶;自由能函数

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article

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