Full Text:   <2858>

Summary:  <2853>

CLC number: TH161

On-line Access: 2017-04-05

Received: 2016-04-05

Revision Accepted: 2016-07-22

Crosschecked: 2017-03-07

Cited: 2

Clicked: 4675

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714


Bozhidar Grigorov


Rosen Mitrev


-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2017 Vol.18 No.4 P.268-281


Dynamic behavior of a hydraulic crane operating a freely suspended payload

Author(s):  Bozhidar Grigorov, Rosen Mitrev

Affiliation(s):  Logistics Engineering Department, Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Technical University, Sofia 1000, Bulgaria

Corresponding email(s):   rosenm@tu-sofia.bg

Key Words:  Hydraulic crane, Load swinging, Newton-Euler method, Hydraulic drive

Bozhidar Grigorov, Rosen Mitrev. Dynamic behavior of a hydraulic crane operating a freely suspended payload[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2017, 18(4): 268-281.

@article{title="Dynamic behavior of a hydraulic crane operating a freely suspended payload",
author="Bozhidar Grigorov, Rosen Mitrev",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Dynamic behavior of a hydraulic crane operating a freely suspended payload
%A Bozhidar Grigorov
%A Rosen Mitrev
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 18
%N 4
%P 268-281
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2017
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A1600292

T1 - Dynamic behavior of a hydraulic crane operating a freely suspended payload
A1 - Bozhidar Grigorov
A1 - Rosen Mitrev
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 18
IS - 4
SP - 268
EP - 281
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2017
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A1600292

We describe an investigation of the dynamic behavior of a hydraulically driven crane with a freely suspended payload during luffing and slewing motions. To simplify the task, the two movements are considered separately. Taking into account only one motion at a time, the crane is regarded as a three-link kinematic chain with revolute joints. The forward dynamics problem is solved for a crane with three rotational degrees of freedom, two of which describe the load swinging. In both the cases studied, the links are driven by a torque applied via a hydraulic drive, i.e., a linear actuator for the luffing case and a rack and pinion mechanism for the slewing motion. To compose the set of differential equations for the forward dynamics problem, a method based on a general Newton-Euler algorithm is used. From these simulations the time histories of various parameters, namely the swinging angles, hydraulic pressures, and joint forces, are determined. The results obtained via simulations are confirmed experimentally and a good agreement between the two outputs is observed. The results also show that a hydraulic drive system using fast opening flow direction control valves increases the load swing and imposes extensive inertial forces and problems of fatigue and reliability.

The problem of transporting a payload over relatively short distances and heights by means of cranes is a typical one in the field of discontinuous transport. Although the problem itself may not seem extremely complex at the first glance, it requires special attention as many of its aspects affect the efficiency and safety during operation. This paper puts focus onto dynamic behavior of a hydraulically driven crane loaded by a freely suspended payload and the chosen topic is of interest to the research community in the field of transport technique. The consideration covers both structural dynamics and dynamics of the hydraulic system as well as their mutual influence, which adds to the quality of the conducted research. Two typical motions of the suspended load are investigated numerically and experimentally. The chosen solution procedure and numerical algorithm are adequate for the problem at hand.


创新点:1. 为了简化任务,将两种运动分开讨论。一次只考虑一种运动,把起重机看作具有三个转动关节连接的运动链;2. 为起重臂的运动问题构造微分方程,使用了通用的牛顿-欧拉算法;3. 对运动和动力模型进行仿真,得到摆动角度、液压压强和连接作用力随时间的变化曲线,并通过实验进行了验证。
方法:1. 建立系统的运动和动力模型,分别对回转运动和升降运动两种工况下的液压缸压强进行推导;2. 在两种工况下,对起重臂转角、液压缸压力和最大行程前臂液压缸反作用力进行仿真计算;3. 将实验获得的有关参数的曲线与仿真得到的曲线进行对比,验证模型的正确性。
结论:1. 在液压起重机运动期间悬浮载荷的摆动对起重机的机械系统和液压驱动系统本身具有强烈的影响,所以在系统设计中不能忽视;2. 系统性能提升的主要方向是安装控制系统以减小载荷摆动(特别是在起重机回转运动时);3. 本文建立的考虑了负载的大角度摆动和液压驱动系统的动力学模型得到了验证,表明其对起重机运动仿真的适用性。尽管分开考虑了两种典型运动,但所用的建模方法还是适合对起重机一般运动的研究。


Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]Abdel-Rahman, E.M., Nayfeh, A.H., Masoud, Z.N., 2003. Dynamics and control of cranes: a review. Journal of Vibration and Control, 9(7):863-908.

[2]Akers, A., Gassman, M., Smith, R., 2006. Hydraulic Power Systems Analysis. CRC Press, USA, p.77-100.

[3]Chin, C., Nayfeh, A.H., Abdel-Rahman, E., 2001. Nonlinear dynamics on a boom crane. Journal of Vibration and Control, 7(2):199-220.

[4]Craig, J.J., 2005. Introduction to Robotics: Mechanics and Control (3rd Edition). Pearson Prentice Hall, p.171-172.

[5]Devesse, W., 2012. Slew Control Methods for Tower Cranes. MS Thesis, KTH Industrial Engineering and Management Machine Design, Stockholm, Sweden.

[6]Divisiev, V., 1986. Essential Hoisting Machines. Technika, Sofia, p.45-49 (in Bulgarian).

[7]Greenwood, D.T., 1977. Classical Dynamics. Prentice Hall, p.13-25.

[8]Grigorov, B., 2013. A generalized Newton-Euler algorithm for dynamic simulation of robot-manipulators with revolute joints. Recent, 14(2):99-105.

[9]Gruening, T., Kunze, G., Katterfeld, A., 2010. Simulating the working process of construction machines. 3rd International Conference & Exhibition BulkSolids, p.180-189.

[10]Gudarzi, M., 2016. Reliable robust controller for half-car active suspension systems based on human-body dynamics. Facta Universitatis Series: Mechanical Engineering, 14(2):121-134.

[11]Hartenberg, R.S., Denavit, J., 1955. A kinematic notation for lower pair mechanisms based on matrices. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 22(2):215-221.

[12]Jerman, B., 2006. An enhanced mathematical model for investigating the dynamic loading of a slewing crane. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 220(4):421-433.

[13]Jovanovic, V., Janosevic, D., Petrovic, N., 2014. Experimental determination of bearing loads in rotating platform drive mechanisms of hydraulic excavators. Facta Universitatis Series: Mechanical Engineering, 12(2):157-169.

[14]Ju, F., Choo, Y., Cui, F.S., 2006. Dynamic response of tower crane induced by the pendulum motion of the payload. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 43(2):376-389.

[15]Lawrence, J., Singhose, W., 2010. Command shaping slewing motions for tower cranes. Journal of Vibration and Acoustics, 132(1):011002.

[16]Linjama, M., Virvalo, T., 1999. Low-order dynamic model for flexible hydraulic cranes. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part I: Journal of Systems and Control Engineering, 213(1):11-22.

[17]Marinković, Z., Marinković, D., Petrović, G., et al., 2012. Modeling and simulation of dynamic behaviour of electric motor driven mechanisms. Tehnićki Vjesnik, 19(4):717-725.

[18]Marinovic, I., Sprecic, D., Jerman, B., 2012. A slewing crane payload dynamics. Tehnićki Vjesnik, 19(4):907-916.

[19]Palis, F., Palis, S., 2008. High performance tracking control of automated slewing cranes. In: Balaguer, C., Abderrahim, M. (Eds.), Robotics and Automation in Construction. InTech, p.187-198.

[20]Papadopoulos, E., Sarkar, S., 1997. The dynamics of an articulated forestry machine and its applications. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, p.323-328.

[21]Pavlovic, J., Jovanovic, M., Miloevic, A., 2014. Optimal synthesis of the manipulator using two competitive methods. Facta Universitatis Series: Mechanical Engineering, 12(1):61-72.

[22]Ren, H.L., Wang, X.L., Hu, Y.J., et al., 2008. Dynamic response analysis of a moored crane-ship with a flexible boom. Journal of Zhejiang University-Science A, 9(1):26-31.

[23]Sicklinger, S., Belsky, V., Engelmann, B., et al., 2014. Interface Jacobian-based co-simulation. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 98(6):418-444.

[24]Sun, G., Liu, J., 2006. Dynamic responses of hydraulic crane during luffing motion. Mechanism and Machine Theory, 41(11):1273-1288.

[25]Sun, G., Kleeberger, M., Liu, J., 2005. Complete dynamic calculation of lattice mobile crane during hoisting motion. Mechanism and Machine Theory, 40(4):447-466.

[26]Troha, S., Milovančević, M., Kuchak, A., 2015. Software testing of the rall vehicle dynamic characteristics. Facta Universitatis Series: Mechanical Engineering, 13(2):109-121.

[27]Vaynson, A., 1989. Hoisting Machines. Machinostroenie, Moscow, p.124-134 (in Russian).

[28]Vukobratovic, M., Potkonjak, V., 1982. Dynamics of Manipulation Robots: Theory and Application. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, p.87-116.

[29]Zill, D., Cullen, M., 2006. Advanced Engineering Mathematics. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, p.319.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2024 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE