Full Text:   <2472>

CLC number: Q946.829

On-line Access: 2013-10-08

Received: 2012-12-29

Revision Accepted: 2013-06-03

Crosschecked: 2013-09-06

Cited: 8

Clicked: 4400

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2013 Vol.14 No.10 P.903-915


Optimization of extraction of phenolics from leaves of Ficus virens

Author(s):  Xiao-xin Chen, Xiao-bing Wu, Wei-ming Chai, Hui-ling Feng, Yan Shi, Han-tao Zhou, Qing-xi Chen

Affiliation(s):  Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China

Corresponding email(s):   htzhou@xmu.edu.cn, chenqx@xmu.edu.cn

Key Words:  Ficus virens, Phenolics, Flavonoids, Antioxidants, Response surface methodology (RSM)

Xiao-xin Chen, Xiao-bing Wu, Wei-ming Chai, Hui-ling Feng, Yan Shi, Han-tao Zhou, Qing-xi Chen. Optimization of extraction of phenolics from leaves of Ficus virens[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2013, 14(10): 903-915.

@article{title="Optimization of extraction of phenolics from leaves of Ficus virens",
author="Xiao-xin Chen, Xiao-bing Wu, Wei-ming Chai, Hui-ling Feng, Yan Shi, Han-tao Zhou, Qing-xi Chen",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Optimization of extraction of phenolics from leaves of Ficus virens
%A Xiao-xin Chen
%A Xiao-bing Wu
%A Wei-ming Chai
%A Hui-ling Feng
%A Yan Shi
%A Han-tao Zhou
%A Qing-xi Chen
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 14
%N 10
%P 903-915
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2013
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.B1200365

T1 - Optimization of extraction of phenolics from leaves of Ficus virens
A1 - Xiao-xin Chen
A1 - Xiao-bing Wu
A1 - Wei-ming Chai
A1 - Hui-ling Feng
A1 - Yan Shi
A1 - Han-tao Zhou
A1 - Qing-xi Chen
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 14
IS - 10
SP - 903
EP - 915
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2013
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.B1200365

In this research, the conditions for extraction of phenolics from leaves of Ficus virens were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The extraction abilities of phenolics (EAP) and flavonoids (EAF), the 2,2-diphenyl-1-pierylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging potential, and the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) were used as quality indicators. The results of single-factor experiments showed that temperature, ethanol concentration, extraction time, and the number of extraction cycles were the main influencing variables, and these provided key information for the central composite design. The results of RSM fitted well to a second degree polynomial model and more than 98% of the variability was explained. The ideal extraction conditions for EAP, EAF, DPPH free-radical scavenging potential, and FRAP were obtained. Considering the four quality indicators overall, the ideal extraction conditions were 58% ethanol at 57 °C for 37 min with three extraction cycles. At the ideal extraction conditions, the values of EAP, EAF, DPPH free-radical scavenging potential, and FRAP were 5.72%, 3.09%, 58.88 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE)/g dry weight (DW), and 15.86 mg AAE/g DW, respectively. In addition, linear correlations were observed between EAP, EAF, and antioxidant potential.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]Abdel-Hameed, E.S.S., 2009. Total phenolic contents and free radical scavenging activity of certain Egyptian Ficus species leaf samples. Food Chem., 114(4):1271-1277.

[2]Ao, C., Li, A., Elzaawely, A.A., Xuan, T.D., Tawata, S., 2008. Evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Ficus microcarpa L. fil. extract. Food Control, 19(10):940-948.

[3]Benzie, I.F., Strain, J.J., 1996. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal. Biochem., 239(1):70-76.

[4]Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M.E., Berset, C., 1995. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Sci. Technol., 28(1):25-30.

[5]Bucić-Kojić, A., Planinić, M., Tomas, S., Jakobek, L., Šeruga, M., 2009. Influence of solvent and temperature on extraction of phenolic compounds from grape seed, antioxidant activity and colour of extract. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 44(12):2394-2401.

[6]Cacace, J.E., Mazza, G., 2003a. Mass transfer process during extraction of phenolic compounds from milled berries. J. Food Eng., 59(4):379-389.

[7]Cacace, J.E., Mazza, G., 2003b. Optimization of extraction of anthocyanins from black currants with aqueous ethanol. J. Food Sci., 68(1):240-248.

[8]Cai, Y., Luo, Q., Sun, M., Harold, C., 2004. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer. Life Sci., 74(17):2157-2184.

[9]Casazza, A.A., Aliakbarian, B., Sannita, E., Perego, P., 2012. High-pressure high-temperature extraction of phenolic compounds from grape skins. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 47(2):399-405.

[10]Contini, M., Baccelloni, S., Massantini, R., Anelli, G., 2008. Extraction of natural antioxidants from hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) shell and skin wastes by long maceration at room temperature. Food Chem., 110(3):659-669.

[11]Dixon, R.A., Paiva, N.L., 1995. Stress-induced phenylpropanoid metabolism. Plant Cell, 7(7):1085-1097.

[12]Gironi, F., Piemonte, V., 2011. Temperature and solvent effects on polyphenol extraction process from chestnut tree wood. Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 89(7A):857-862.

[13]Huang, D, Ou, B., Prior, R.L., 2005. The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays. J. Agric. Food Chem., 53(6):1841-1856.

[14]Jia, Z., Tang, M., Wu, J., 1999. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem., 64(4):555-559.

[15]Ju, Z.Y., Howard, L.R., 2003. Effects of solvent and temperature on pressurized liquid extraction of anthocyanins and total phenolics from dried red grape skin. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51(18):5207-5213.

[16]Juntachote, T., Berghofer, E., Bauer, F., Siebenhandl, S., 2006. The application of response surface methodology to the production of phenolic extracts of lemon grass, galangal, holy basil and rosemary. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech., 41(2):121-133.

[17]Khan, K.Y., Khan, M.A., Niamat, R., Munir, M., Fazal, H., Mazari, P., Seema, N., Bashir, T., Kanwal, A., Ahmed, S.N., 2011. Element content analysis of plants of genus Ficus using atomic absorption spectrometer. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 5(3):317-321.

[18]Liyanapathirana, C., Shahidi, F., 2005. Optimization of extraction of phenolic compounds from wheat using response surface methodology. Food Chem., 93(1):47-56.

[19]Maksimović, Z., Malenčić, D., Kovačević, N., 2005. Polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of Maydis stigma extracts. Bioresour. Technol., 96(8):873-877.

[20]Malencic, D., Maksimovic, Z., Popovic, M., Miladinovic, J., 2008. Polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of soybean seed extracts. Bioresour. Technol., 99(14):6688-6691.

[21]Pérez-Jiménez, J., Arranz, S., Tabernero, M., Elena Díaz-Rubio, M., Serrano, J., Goñi, I., Saura-Calixto, F., 2008. Updated methodology to determine antioxidant capacity in plant foods, oils and beverages: extraction, measurement and expression of results. Food Res. Int., 41(3):274-285.

[22]Pinelo, M., Rubilar, M., Jerez, M., Sineiro, J., Nuanez, M.J., 2005. Effect of solvent, temperature, and solvent-to-solid ratio on the total phenolic content and antiradical activity of extracts from different components of grape pomace. J. Agric. Food Chem., 53(6):2111-2117.

[23]Sasaki, Y.F., Kawaguchi, S., Kamay, A., Ohshit, M., Kabasawa, K., Iwama, K., Taniguchi, K., Tsuda, S., 2002. The comet assay with 8 mouse organs: results with 39 currently used food additives. Mutat. Res., 519(1-2):103-119.

[24]Shi, Y.X., Xu, Y.K., Hu, H.B., Na, Z., Wang, W.H., 2011. Preliminary assessment of antioxidant activity of young edible leaves of seven Ficus species in the ethnic diet in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China. Food Chem., 128(4):889-894.

[25]Silva, E.M., Rogez, H., Larondelle, Y., 2007. Optimization of extraction of phenolics from Inga edulis leaves using response surface methodology. Sep. Purif. Technol., 55(3):381-387.

[26]Spigno, G., Tramelli, L., Faveri, D.M., 2007. Effects of extraction time, temperature and solvent on concentration and antioxidant activity of grape marc phenolics. J. Food Eng., 81(1):200-208.

[27]Thaipong, K., Boonprakob, U., Crosby, K., Cisneros-Zevallos, L., Byrne, D.H., 2006. Comparison of ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC assays for estimating antioxidant activity from guava fruit extracts. J. Food Compos. Anal., 19(6-7):669-675.

[28]Thoo, Y.Y., Ho, S.K., Liang, J.Y., Ho, C.W., Tan, C.P., 2010. Effects of binary solvent extraction system, extraction time and extraction temperature on phenolic antioxidants and antioxidant capacity from mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia). Food Chem., 120(1):290-295.

[29]Wei, S.D., Zhou, H.C., Lin, Y.M., 2010. Antioxidant activities of extract and fractions from the hypocotyls of the mangrove plant Kandelia candel. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 11(10):4080-4093.

[30]Wu, X., Yu, X., Jing, H., 2011. Optimization of phenolic antioxidant extraction from Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis) pulp using random-centroid optimazation methodology. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 12(12):6255-6266.

[31]Yang, L., Jiang, J.G., Li, W.F., Chen, J., Wang, D.Y., Zhu, L., 2009. Optimum extraction process of polyphenols from the bark of Phyllanthus emblica L. based on the response surface methodology. J. Sep. Sci., 32(9):1437-1444.

[32]Zhang, Z.S., Li, D., Wang, L.J., Ozkan, N., Chen, X.D., Mao, Z.H., Yang, H.Z., 2007. Optimization of ethanol-water extraction of lignans from flaxseed. Sep. Purif. Technol., 57(1):17-24.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2022 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE