Full Text:   <1531>

Summary:  <1277>

CLC number: R591.44

On-line Access: 2016-07-06

Received: 2015-11-19

Revision Accepted: 2016-03-08

Crosschecked: 2016-06-18

Cited: 3

Clicked: 3088

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714


Xiao-wei Zhao


-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2016 Vol.17 No.7 P.545-552


Vitamin D status among infants, children, and adolescents in southeastern China

Author(s):  Ling-li Wang, Hui-yan Wang, Huai-kai Wen, Hong-qun Tao, Xiao-wei Zhao

Affiliation(s):  Unit of Laboratory Medicine, Second Hospital Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325027, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   sherwood@wzu.edu.cn

Key Words:  Vitamin D, Deficiency, Child, China

Ling-li Wang, Hui-yan Wang, Huai-kai Wen, Hong-qun Tao, Xiao-wei Zhao. Vitamin D status among infants, children, and adolescents in southeastern China[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2016, 17(7): 545-552.

@article{title="Vitamin D status among infants, children, and adolescents in southeastern China",
author="Ling-li Wang, Hui-yan Wang, Huai-kai Wen, Hong-qun Tao, Xiao-wei Zhao",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Vitamin D status among infants, children, and adolescents in southeastern China
%A Ling-li Wang
%A Hui-yan Wang
%A Huai-kai Wen
%A Hong-qun Tao
%A Xiao-wei Zhao
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 17
%N 7
%P 545-552
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2016
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.B1500285

T1 - Vitamin D status among infants, children, and adolescents in southeastern China
A1 - Ling-li Wang
A1 - Hui-yan Wang
A1 - Huai-kai Wen
A1 - Hong-qun Tao
A1 - Xiao-wei Zhao
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 17
IS - 7
SP - 545
EP - 552
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2016
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.B1500285

Objective: vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are global public health problems, which must first be identified before they can be appropriately addressed, and yet information is strikingly lacking in most parts of the Asia and Pacific region. The study aimed to document and account for the actual situation in Wenzhou on the southeastern coast of china. Subjects and methods: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels among a total of 5845 infants, preschool children, school children, and adolescents aged 1–18 years were examined between March 2014 and February 2015. Results: Their mean levels were (110.2±26.8), (77.5±25.7), (55.6±15.4), and (47.2±13.9) nmol/L, respectively. Older age groups were involved in increasing risk of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. There were significant seasonal differences in its median level and prevalence of deficiency and insufficiency among school children and adolescents, but there was no significant sex difference in mean level and prevalence in any age group. Conclusions: vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were prevalent among infants, preschool children, school children, and adolescents in Wenzhou. A vitamin D-rich diet and outdoor activities for 1–2 h per day under the natural conditions favorable to its endogeous synthesis do not suffice. The vitamin D status in Wenzhounese infants excelling over that in the US was the result of its supplementation thanks to the Chinese Medical Association recommendations, which should be consequently extended to more age groups. Life style shaped by socio-economic environments affects vitamin D status. Knowledge on the importance of vitamin D for healthy growth should be popularized.


结论:维生素D缺乏和不足普遍发生于温州的婴儿、学前儿童、学龄儿童与少年,富含维生素D的饮食与在有利于维生素D内源性合成的自然条件下每天户外活动1~2小时并不能满足需求。温州婴儿的维生素D状态优于美国婴儿,是因为中国医学会自2008年以来推荐2周至2岁的婴幼儿应每天摄入400 IU维生素D,自2009年以来推荐3岁以下的婴幼儿应喂食维生素D强化食物,因此,其推荐范围应当扩展至更多年龄段。因社会经济环境形成的生活方式影响维生素D状态,应当广泛宣传关于维生素D对于健康生长至关重要的知识。


Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]Absoud, M., Cummins, C., Lim, M.J., et al., 2011. Prevalence and predictors of vitamin D insufficiency in children: a Great Britain population based study. PLoS ONE, 6(7):e22179.

[2]Arguelles, L.M., Langman, C.B., Ariza, A.J., et al., 2009. Heritability and environmental factors affecting vitamin D status in rural Chinese adolescent twins. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 94(9):3273-3281.

[3]Bischoff-Ferrari, H.A., Giovannucci, E., Willett, W.C., et al., 2006. Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 84(1):18-28.

[4]Bodnar, L.M., Simhan, H.N., Powers, R.W., et al., 2007. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in black and white pregnant women residing in the northern United States and their neonates. J. Nutr., 137(2):447-452.

[5]Eberhard, W., 1965. Chinese regional stereotypes. Asian Surv., 5(12):596-608.

[6]Foo, L.H., Zhang, Q., Zhu, K., et al., 2009. Relationship between vitamin D status, body composition and physical exercise of adolescent girls in Beijing. Osteoporosis Int., 20(3):417-425.

[7]Ganji, V., Zhang, X., Tangpricha, V., 2012. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and prevalence estimates of hypovitaminosis D in the U.S. population based on assay-adjusted data. J. Nutr., 142(3):498-507.

[8]Gonzàlez-Gross, M., Valtueña, J., Breidenassel, C., et al., 2012. Vitamin D status among adolescents in Europe: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Br. J. Nutr., 107(5):755-764.

[9]Holick, M.F., Binkley, N.C., Bischoff-Ferrari, H.A., et al., 2011. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 96(7):1911-1930.

[10]Khor, G.L., Chee, W.S., Shariff, Z.M., et al., 2011. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and its association with BMI-for-age among primary school children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. BMC Public Health, 11(1):95.

[11]Liu, A.L., Ma, G.S., Zhang, Q., et al., 2003. Reliability and validity of a 7-day physical activity questionnaire for elementary students. Chin. J. Epidemiol., 24(10):901-904 (in Chinese).

[12]Lytle, L.A., Nichaman, M.Z., Obarzanek, E., et al., 1993. Validation of 24-hour recalls assisted by food records in third-grade children. J. Am. Diet. Assoc., 93(12):1431-1436.

[13]Mansbach, J.M., Ginde, A.A., Camargo, C.A.Jr., 2009. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels among US children aged 1 to 11 years: do children need more vitamin D? Pediatrics, 124(5):1404-1410.

[14]Moreno, L.A., Gottrand, F., Huybrechts, I., et al., 2014. Nutrition and lifestyle in European adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. Adv. Nutr., 5(5):615S-623S.

[15]Nicolaidou, P., Kakourou, T., Papadopoulou, A., et al., 2006. Low vitamin D status in preschool children in Greece. Nutr. Res., 26(12):620-625.

[16]Palacios, C., Gonzalez, L., 2014. Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem? J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 144(A):138-145.

[17]Sallis, J.F., Buono, M.J., Roby, J.J., et al., 1993. Seven-day recall and other physical activity self-reports in children and adolescents. Med. Sci. Sport. Exer., 25(1):99-108.

[18]Schöttker, B., Ball, D., Gellert, C., et al., 2013. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and overall mortality. A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Ageing Res. Rev., 12(2):708-718.

[19]Strand, M.A., Perry, J., Zhao, J., et al., 2009. Severe vitamin D-deficiency and the health of north China children. Matern. Child Health J., 13(1):144-150.

[20]Wahl, D.A., Cooper, C., Ebeling, P.R., et al., 2012. A global representation of vitamin D status in healthy populations. Arch. Osteoporosis, 7(1):155-172.

[21]Yang, S.F., Mao, Y.D., 2008. Temperature variation of past 50 years and seasonal division in Zhejiang. Meteorol. Zhejiang, 29(4):1-6 (in Chinese).

[22]Zhang, H.Q., Teng, J.H., Li, Y., et al., 2014. Vitamin D status and its association with adiposity and oxidative stress in schoolchildren. Nutrition, 30(9):1040-1044.

[23]Zhang, W.G., Stoecklin, E., Eggersdorfer, M., 2013. A glimpse of vitamin D status in mainland China. Nutrition, 29(7-8):953-957.

[24]Zhejiang Provincial Department of Education, 2014. Bulletin on statistical results from physical examination of college freshmen/women in Zhejiang Province in 2013. Available from http://www.zjedu.gov.cn/news/142353458736472256.html [Accessed on Jan. 5, 2015] (in Chinese).

[25]Zhu, Z.W., Zhan, J.Y., Shao, J., et al., 2012. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among children aged 1 month to 16 years in Hangzhou, China. BMC Public Health, 12(1):126.

[26]Zittermann, A., Gummert, J.F., 2010. Nonclassical vitamin D action. Nutrients, 2(4):408-425.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2022 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE