Full Text:   <4042>

CLC number: TM8

On-line Access: 2011-06-07

Received: 2010-07-19

Revision Accepted: 2010-12-27

Crosschecked: 2011-05-05

Cited: 2

Clicked: 6028

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE C 2011 Vol.12 No.6 P.515-522


Partial discharge diagnostics in wind turbine insulation

Author(s):  Michael G. Danikas, Athanasios Karlis

Affiliation(s):  Power Systems Lab, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi 67100, Greece, Electrical Machines Lab, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi 67100, Greece

Corresponding email(s):   mdanikas@ee.duth.gr

Key Words:  Partial discharges, Rotating machine insulation, Wind turbines

Share this article to: More <<< Previous Article|

Michael G. Danikas, Athanasios Karlis. Partial discharge diagnostics in wind turbine insulation[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science C, 2011, 12(6): 515-522.

@article{title="Partial discharge diagnostics in wind turbine insulation",
author="Michael G. Danikas, Athanasios Karlis",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science C",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Partial discharge diagnostics in wind turbine insulation
%A Michael G. Danikas
%A Athanasios Karlis
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE C
%V 12
%N 6
%P 515-522
%@ 1869-1951
%D 2011
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.C1000256

T1 - Partial discharge diagnostics in wind turbine insulation
A1 - Michael G. Danikas
A1 - Athanasios Karlis
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science C
VL - 12
IS - 6
SP - 515
EP - 522
%@ 1869-1951
Y1 - 2011
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.C1000256

The purpose of this paper is to review work undertaken on partial discharges and their influence on the insulation of wind turbines. No matter whether partial discharges can be considered as the main cause of deterioration of the insulation material, the initial cause of failure or not but an indication of the material degradation, there is no doubt that they are intimately linked to the aging of machine insulation. Material degradation can be detected by non-destructive techniques (e.g., partial discharge measurements, change of tan δ) or by destructive techniques, such as by cutting small pieces of the insulating material and by putting them under the scrutiny of the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Wind generators are a modern subject of research, especially in view of the growing demands of electric energy worldwide and the problems facing the environment all over the globe. wind turbines are a novel field of research regarding partial discharge diagnostics since they are subjected to a variety of aging factors, which are different from conventional turbines. In this respect, particular attention should be paid to the multi-factor stressing of insulation and their consequences on the partial discharges.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]Bartnikas, R., 1987. A commentary on partial discharge measurement and detection. IEEE Trans. Electr. Insul., 22(5):629-653.

[2]Böning, W., 1963. Luftgehalt und luftspaltverteilung geschichteter dielektrika. Arch. Elektrotech., 48(2):85-96 (in German).

[3]Bradwell, A., 1983. Electrical Insulation. Peter Peregrinus Ltd., London, UK.

[4]Brancato, E.L., 1992. Estimation of lifetime expectancies of motors. IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag., 8(3):5-13.

[5]Bruetsch, R., 2004. Insulating Systems for Wind Turbine Generators. INDUCTICA Technical Conf., p.1-16.

[6]Bruetsch, R., Weyl, P., 2002. A New Winding Wire for Inverter Driven Motors. 9th INSUCON Int. Electrical Insulation Conf., p.1-5.

[7]Bruning, A.M., 1984. Design of Electrical Insulation Systems. PhD Thesis, Faculty of the Graduate School, University of Missouri-Columbia.

[8]Christodoulou, A., Weddleton, D., Sattinger, S., 1998. Dynamic Bending Tests—a Method to Evaluate the Ability of Stator Coil Insulation to Accommodate 3-Phase Short Circuits. Conf. Record of IEEE Int. Symp. on Electrical Insulation, p.282-287.

[9]Danikas, M.G., 1995. Ageing properties of silicone rubber materials used in high voltage composite insulators. J. Electr. Electron. Eng., 15:193-202.

[10]Danikas, M.G., 1999. Polymer outdoor insulators. Acta Electrotehn. Napoc., 40:3-10.

[11]Danikas, M.G., 2001. Partial discharge behaviour of two (or more) adjacent cavities in polyethylene samples. J. Electr. Eng., 52(1-2):36-39.

[12]Danikas, M.G., Karlis, A.D., 2006a. On the use of neural networks in recognizing sources of partial discharges in electrical machine insulation: a short review. Int. Rev. Electr. Eng., 1(2):277-285.

[13]Danikas, M.G., Karlis, A.D., 2006b. Diagnostic techniques in rotating machine insulation: a diagnostic technique for model stator bars based on the maximum partial discharge magnitude. Electr. Power Compon. Syst., 34(8):905-916.

[14]Danikas, M.G., Karlis, A.D., 2008. Maximum partial discharge magnitude hysteresis curves as a diagnostic technique for model stator bars. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 44(5):1552-1558.

[15]Danikas, M.G., Nelson, J.K., 1993. Assessment of deterioration in epoxy/mica machine insulation. IEEE Trans. Electr. Insul., 28(2):303-305.

[16]Danikas, M.G., Tanaka, T., 1994. Aging and related phenomena in modern electric power systems. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul., 1(3):548-549.

[17]Dean, R.J., 2009. Investigation of Failures in Marine Environments. Available from http://www.era.co.uk/Docs/ECS/Marine_Forensics_Paper_Bob_Dean_ERA_Technology.pdf

[18]Devins, J.C., 1984. The physics of partial discharges in solid dielectrics. IEEE Trans. Electr. Insul., 19(5):475-495.

[19]Dinkhauser, V., Fuchs, F.W., 2009. Detection of Rotor Turn-to-Turn Faults in Doubly-Fed Induction Generators in Wind Energy Plants by Means of Observers. 13th Int. European Power Electronics Conf. and Exhibition, p.1-10.

[20]Eriksson, S., Bernhoff, H., Leijon, M., 2008. Evaluation of different turbine concepts for wind power. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., 12(5):1419-1434.

[21]Florkowski, M., Furgal, J., 2004. Detection of winding faults in electrical machines using the frequency response analysis method. IEE Proc.-Meas. Sci. Technol., 15:2067-2074.

[22]Florkowski, M., Furgal, J., 2005. A high-frequency method for determining winding faults in transformers and electrical machines. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 76(11):114701-1-114701-6.

[23]Fort, E., 1990. Rotating machine insulation. IEEE Trans. Electr. Insul., 25(1):137-140.

[24]Gallagher, T.J., Pearmain, A.J., 1983. High Voltage: Measurement, Testing and Design. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

[25]Gao, G., Chen, W., 2007. Design Considerations and Qualifications of the Insulation System for Double Fed Induction Wind Generator. Iris Rotating Machine Conf., p.1-4.

[26]Gorur, R.S., 1991. High voltage outdoor insulation technology. Control Dynam. Syst., 44:131-191.

[27]Gulski, E., Zielonka, A., 1996. Application of Digital Partial Discharge Measuring Techniques for the Diagnosis of High Voltage Generator Insulation. Conf. Record of IEEE Int. Symp. on Electrical Insulation, p.255-258.

[28]Gulski, E., Smit, J., Brooks, R., Turner, M., 1999. Experiences with digital analysis of discharges in high voltage components. IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag., 15(3):15-24.

[29]Hutter, W., 1992. Partial discharges: part XII. partial discharge detection in rotating electrical machines. IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag., 8(3):21-32.

[30]ISET, 2005. Advanced Maintenance and Repair for Offshore Wind Farms Using Fault Prediction and Condition Monitoring Techniques (OffshoreM&R). ISET Final Report, Funded by the European Commission, DG TREN under the FP5 Contract NNE5/2001/710.

[31]Kashisha, M.A., Tootaghaj, D.Z., Jamshidi, D., 2009. Partial discharge source classification and de-noising in rotating machines using discrete wavelet transform and directional coupling capacitor. J. Electromagn. Anal. Appl., 2:92-96.

[32]Kelen, A., 1967. Studies on partial discharges on solid dielectrics—a contribution to the discharge resistance testing of insulating materials. Acta Polytechn. Scand. Electr. Eng. Ser., 16:138.

[33]Kelen, A., 1976. The Functional Testing of HV Generator Stator Insulation. Report 15-03, CIGRE, p.14.

[34]Kelen, A., 1990. Reflections on the long-term performance of electrical insulation. Rev. Gen. Electr., 8:8-13.

[35]Kelen, A., 1995. Trends in PD diagnostics. When new options proliferate, so do old and new problems. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul., 2(4):529-534.

[36]Kelen, A., Danikas, M.G., 1995. Evidence and presumption in PD diagnostics. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul., 2(5):780-795.

[37]Kemp, I.J., Zhou, C., 1996. Measurement Strategies for PD Testing and Pulse Propagation in Stator Windings. Conf. Record of IEEE Symp. on Electrical Insulation, p.214-217.

[38]Kheirmand, A., 2002. Partial Discharges in Large Rotating Machines—Continuous On-line Monitoring and Localization Based on a New Developed Technique. PhD Thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg, Sweden.

[39]Kheirmand, A., Leijon, M., Gubanski, S.M., 2004. Advances in on-line monitoring and localization of partial discharges in large rotating machines. IEEE Trans. Energy Conv., 19(1):53-59.

[40]Kim, Y.J., Nelson, J.K., 1992. Assessment of deterioration in epoxy/mica machine insulation. IEEE Trans. Electr. Insul., 27(5):1026-1039.

[41]Kuffel, E., Zaengl, W.S., 1984. High Voltage Engineering: Fundamentals. Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK.

[42]Kuffel, E., Zaengl, W.S., Kuffel, J., 2000. High Voltage Engineering Fundamentals. Newnes, Oxford, UK.

[43]Kung, P., 2009. Condition Monitoring Solutions for the Wind Turbines. Canadian Machinery Vibration Association Seminar. Available from http://www.qpscom.com/pages/Condition%20monitoring%20solutions%20for%20wind%20turbines.pdf

[44]Kurtz, M., Lyles, J.F., 1979. Generator insulation diagnostic testing. IEEE Trans. Power Appar. Syst., 98(5):1596-1603.

[45]Li, J., Si, W., Yao, X., Li, Y., 2009. Partial discharge characteristics over differently aged oil/pressboard interfaces. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul., 16(6):1640-1647.

[46]Martinez-Tarifa, J.M., 2005. Transient Voltage Distribution along LV Motor Windings Fed with PWM Converters Insulation Ageing Analysis. PhD Thesis, University Calros III of Madrid, Spain.

[47]Mason, J.H., 1978. Discharges. IEEE Trans. Electr. Insul., 13(4):211-238.

[48]Miller, R., Hogg, W.K., Black, I.A., 1982. Measuring Techniques for Identifying Partial Discharges in Stator Windings of Electrical Machines. IEEE Conf. on Dielectric Material Measurement Application, p.221-234.

[49]Muljadi, E., Yildirim, D., Batan, T., Butterfield, C.P., 1999. Understanding the Unbalanced-Voltage Problem in Wind Turbine Generation. Conf. Record of the IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, p.1359-1365.

[50]Nelson, J.K., Azizi-Ghannad, S., Li, H., 2000. Theory and application of dynamic aging for life estimation in machine insulation. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul., 7(6):773-782.

[51]Paoletti, G., Golubev, A., 1999a. Partial Discharge Theory and Technologies Related to Traditional Testing Methods of Large Rotating Apparatus. Conf. Record of the IEEE 34th Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, p.967-981.

[52]Paoletti, G., Golubev, A., 1999b. Partial Discharge Theory and Applications to Electrical Systems. Conf. Record of Pulp and Paper Industry Technical Conf., p.124-138.

[53]Patsch, R., Benzerouk, D., 2003. Analysis of Partial Discharges in Stator Windings. Annual Report Conf. on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, p.641-644.

[54]Pearmain, A.J., Danikas, M.G., 1987. A study of the behavior of a uniaxially oriented polyethylene tape/oil insulating system subjected to electrical and thermal stresses. IEEE Trans. Electr. Insul., 22(4):373-382.

[55]Perisse, F., Werynski, P., Roger, D., 2007. A new method for AC machine turn insulation diagnostic based on high frequency resonances. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul., 14(5):1308-1315.

[56]Ramesh Babu, J., Jithesh, S.V., 2008. Breakdown risks in wind energy turbines. J. Insur. Risk Manag. Natl. Insur. Acad., III(3):9-18.

[57]Stone, G.S., Bragoszewski, J., Campbell, S.R., Lloyd, B.A., 1996. Development of a Practical Continuous On-line Partial Discharge Monitor for Generators and Motors. Conf. Record of IEEE Int. Symp. on Electrical Insulation, p.206-209.

[58]Suwarno, Suzuoki, Y., Mizutani, T., 1996. Pulse-Sequence Analysis of Partial Discharges in a Void and Electrical Treeing. Conf. Record of IEEE Int. Symp. on Electrical Insulation, p.130-133.

[59]Tanaka, T., Okamoto, T., Nakanishi, K., Miyamoto, T., 1993. Aging and related phenomena in modern electric power systems. IEEE Trans. Electr. Insul., 28(5):826-844.

[60]Warren, V., Stone, G., 1998. Recent developments in diagnostic testing of stator windings. IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag., 14(5):16-24.

[61]Werynski, P., Roger, D., Corton, R., Brudny, J.F., 2006. Proposition of a new method for in-service monitoring of the aging of stator winding insulation in AC motors. IEEE Trans. Energy Conv., 21(3):673-681.

[62]Wilson, A., Jackson, R.J., Wang, N., 1985. Discharge detection techniques for stator winding. IEE Proc. B Electr. Power Appl., 132(5):234-244.

[63]Zalis, K., 2000. Using of expert systems in electrodiagnostics of large electrical machines. Acta Polytechn., 40(3):67-75.

[64]Zhou, Y., Dix, G.I., Quaife, P.W., 1996. Insulation Condition Monitoring and Testing for Large Electrical Machines. Conf. Record of IEEE Int. Symp. on Electrical Insulation, p.239-242.

[65]Zhou, Y., Younsi, A., Salem, S.R., Longwell, R.I., 2009. Method and Apparatus for Detecting Partial Discharges in Electrical Systems. Available from http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20090248328

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Jose Rodrigues@No address<japr@cepel.br>

2012-03-29 19:46:25


I would like get that complete paper please.

Best regards

Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2023 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE