Full Text:   <1055>

Summary:  <1050>

CLC number: TN928

On-line Access: 2021-04-15

Received: 2020-08-31

Revision Accepted: 2021-01-06

Crosschecked: 2021-02-04

Cited: 0

Clicked: 2031

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714


Jian-hua Zhang


Tao Jiang


-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering  2021 Vol.22 No.4 P.488-502


A study of uplink and downlink channel spatial characteristics in an urban micro scenario at 28 GHz

Author(s):  Tao Jiang, Jianhua Zhang, Pan Tang, Lei Tian

Affiliation(s):  State Key Lab of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China

Corresponding email(s):   jet@bupt.edu.cn, jhzhang@bupt.edu.cn

Key Words:  Channel measurements, Millimeter-wave (mmWave), Uplink, Downlink, Azimuth angle of arrival

Tao Jiang, Jianhua Zhang, Pan Tang, Lei Tian. A study of uplink and downlink channel spatial characteristics in an urban micro scenario at 28 GHz[J]. Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering, 2021, 22(4): 488-502.

@article{title="A study of uplink and downlink channel spatial characteristics in an urban micro scenario at 28 GHz",
author="Tao Jiang, Jianhua Zhang, Pan Tang, Lei Tian",
journal="Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T A study of uplink and downlink channel spatial characteristics in an urban micro scenario at 28 GHz
%A Tao Jiang
%A Jianhua Zhang
%A Pan Tang
%A Lei Tian
%J Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering
%V 22
%N 4
%P 488-502
%@ 2095-9184
%D 2021
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/FITEE.2000443

T1 - A study of uplink and downlink channel spatial characteristics in an urban micro scenario at 28 GHz
A1 - Tao Jiang
A1 - Jianhua Zhang
A1 - Pan Tang
A1 - Lei Tian
J0 - Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering
VL - 22
IS - 4
SP - 488
EP - 502
%@ 2095-9184
Y1 - 2021
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/FITEE.2000443

This paper presents an empirical study of the uplink and downlink azimuth angle of arrival (AoA) in an urban micro (UMi) scenario at 28 GHz. At present, most UMi measurements are conducted in the downlink and then the uplink situation is inferred assuming channel reciprocity. Although the channel correlation coefficient of the uplink and downlink can be as high as 0.8, this does not mean that they are the same. Only a real uplink measurement can accurately describe its channel conditions, and this is what this study does. A receiver equipped with a rotatable horn antenna is mounted at the base station and the user terminal, respectively, in simulating the uplink and downlink. To improve the angular resolution, we extract the multipath components (MPCs) using the space-alternating generalized expectation-maximization algorithm. Also, a spatial lobe approach is used to cluster the MPCs in the power angular spectrum. By matching MPCs with objects in the environment, we find that direct propagation and first-order reflections are dominant in line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight cases. By comparing our measurement with those in standard channel models, we verify that the AoA of clusters follows a Gaussian distribution in the uplink and downlink. In addition, a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution for ray AoA and power is established to reflect their correlation.

28 GHz城市微蜂窝场景中上行与下行信道空间特性

摘要:介绍了28 GHz城市微蜂窝(UMi)场景中上行和下行链路的水平到达角(AoA)实验研究。目前,大多数毫米波频段的角度测量都在下行链路中进行,然后利用信道互易性来推断上行链路情况。尽管上行链路和下行链路的信道相关系数可以高达0.8,但这并不意味着它们完全相同。只有对真实的上行链路进行测量才能准确描述其信道状况,这也是本文的研究目的。在模拟上行链路和下行链路时,将配备有可旋转喇叭天线的接收机分别置于基站和用户终端。为提高角度分辨率,使用空间替代广义期望最大化(SAGE)算法提取多径分量(MPC),然后使用空间波瓣方法对MPC在功率角谱中分簇。通过将MPC与环境中的对象匹配,发现直射传播和一阶反射传播分别在视距(LoS)和非视距(NLoS)情况下占主导地位。通过将测量结果与标准信道模型比较,可以验证AoA的簇心角在上行链路和下行链路中均遵循高斯分布。最后,为簇内多径的AoA和功率建立二维高斯模型,以反映它们的相关性。


Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]3GPP, 2019. Study on Channel Model for Frequencies from 0.5 to 100 GHz. Technical Report, TR 38.901.

[2]Alatossava M, Hentila L, Holappa VM, et al., 2007. Comparison of outdoor to indoor and indoor to outdoor MIMO propagation characteristics at 5.25 GHz. IEEE 65th Vehicular Technology Conf, p.445-449.

[3]Bigler L, Lin HP, Jeng SS, et al., 1995. Experimental direction of arrival and spatial signature measurements at 900 MHz for smart antenna systems. IEEE 45th Vehicular Technology Conf, p.55-58.

[4]Fleury BH, Tschudin M, Heddergott R, et al., 1999. Channel parameter estimation in mobile radio environments using the SAGE algorithm. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun, 17(3):434-450.

[5]Foo SE, Beach MA, Karlsson P, et al., 2002. Spatio-temporal investigation of UTRA FDD channels. 3rd Int Conf on 3G Mobile Communication Technologies, p.175-179.

[6]Gao XX, Tian L, Tang P, et al., 2016. Channel characteristics analysis of angle and clustering in indoor office environment at 28 GHz. IEEE 84th Vehicular Technology Conf, p.1-5.

[7]Hamida STB, Pierrot JB, Castelluccia C, 2010. Empirical analysis of UWB channel characteristics for secret key generation in indoor environments. 21st Annual IEEE Int Symp on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, p.1984-1989.

[8]He S, Dong X, Tian Z, et al., 2009. On the empirical evaluation of spatial and temporal characteristics of ultra-wideband channel. IEEE 69th Vehicular Technology Conf, p.1-5.

[9]ITU-R, 2017. Guidelines for Evaluation of Radio Interface Technologies for IMT-2020. Technical Report, M.2412-0.

[10]Jaeckel S, Raschkowski L, Börner K, et al., 2019. Quasi Deterministic Radio Channel Generator User Manual and Documentation. Technical Report, v2.2.0.

[11]Jiang T, Tian L, Tang P, et al., 2017. Basestation 3-dimensional spatial propagation characteristics in urban microcell at 28 GHz. 11th European Conf on Antennas and Propagation, p.3167-3171.

[12]Jiang T, Zhang JH, Shafi M, et al., 2020. The comparative study of S-V model between 3.5 and 28 GHz in indoor and outdoor scenarios. IEEE Trans Veh Technol, 69(3):2351-2364.

[13]Ko J, Cho YJ, Hur S, et al., 2017. Millimeter-wave channel measurements and analysis for statistical spatial channel model in in-building and urban environments at 28 GHz. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun, 16(9):5853-5868.

[14]Luo QL, Pei F, Zhang JH, et al., 2014. 3D MIMO channel model based on field measurement campaign for UMa scenario. IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conf, p.171-176.

[15]Lv YJ, Yin XF, Zhang C, et al., 2019. Measurement-based characterization of 39 GHz millimeter-wave dual-polarized channel under foliage loss impact. IEEE Access, 7:151558-151568.

[16]Meinilä J, Kyösti P, Jämsä T, et al., 2009. WINNER II channel models. In: Döttling M, Mohr W, Osseiran A (Eds.), Radio Technologies and Concepts for IMT-Advanced. Wiley, Chichester, UK, p.39-92.

[17]Nguyen SLH, Haneda K, Putkonen J, 2016. Dual-band multipath cluster analysis of small-cell backhaul channels in an urban street environment. IEEE Globecom Workshops, p.1-6.

[18]Nie X, Zhang JH, Zhang Y, et al., 2008. An experimental investigation of wideband MIMO channel based on indoor hotspot NLOS measurements at 2.35 GHz. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf, p.1-5.

[19]Park JJ, Liang JY, Lee J, et al., 2016. Millimeter-wave channel model parameters for urban microcellular environment based on 28 and 38 GHz measurements. IEEE 27th Annual Int Symp on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications, p.1-5.

[20]Pedersen KI, Mogensen PE, Frederiksen F, 1999. Joint directional properties of uplink and downlink channel in mobile communications. Electron Lett, 35(16):1311-1312.

[21]Peter M, Haneda K, Nguyen SLH, et al., 2017. Measurement Results and Final mmMAGIC Channel Models. Technical Report, H2020-ICT-671650-mmMAGIC/D2.2.

[22]Rappaport TS, Gutierrez F, Ben-Dor E, et al., 2013. Broadband millimeter-wave propagation measurements and models using adaptive-beam antennas for outdoor urban cellular communications. IEEE Trans Antenn Propag, 61(4):1850-1859.

[23]Samimi MK, Rappaport TS, 2016a. 3-D millimeter-wave statistical channel model for 5G wireless system design. IEEE Trans Microw Theory Techn, 64(7):2207-2225.

[24]Samimi MK, Rappaport TS, 2016b. Local multipath model parameters for generating 5G millimeter-wave 3GPP-like channel impulse response. 10th European Conf on Antennas and Propagation, p.1-5.

[25]Shafi M, Zhang JH, Tataria H, et al., 2018. Microwave vs. millimeter-wave propagation channels: key differences and impact on 5G cellular systems. IEEE Commun Mag, 56(12):14-20.

[26]Tang P, Zhang JH, Shafi M, et al., 2018. Millimeter wave channel measurements and modelling in an indoor hotspot scenario at 28 GHz. IEEE 88th Vehicular Technology Conf, p.1-5.

[27]You XH, Wang CX, Huang J, et al., 2020. Towards 6G wireless communication networks: vision, enabling technologies, and new paradigm shifts. Sci China Inform Sci, 64:110301.

[28]Zhan JN, Zhang JH, Tian L, et al., 2018. Comparative channel study of ray tracing and measurement for an indoor scenario at 28 GHz. 12th European Conf on Antennas and Propagation, p.1-5.

[29]Zhang JH, Pan C, Pei F, et al., 2014. Three-dimensional fading channel models: a survey of elevation angle research. IEEE Commun Mag, 52(6):218-226.

[30]Zhang JH, Tang P, Tian L, et al., 2017. 6-100 GHz research progress and challenges from a channel perspective for fifth generation (5G) and future wireless communication. Sci China Inform Sci, 60(8):080301.

[31]Zhang JH, Tang P, Yu L, et al., 2020. Channel measurements and models for 6G: current status and future outlook. Front Inform Technol Electron Eng, 21(1):39-61.

[32]Zhang PZ, Li J, Wang HB, et al., 2018. Indoor small-scale spatiotemporal propagation characteristics at multiple millimeter-wave bands. IEEE Antenn Wirel Propag Lett, 17(12):2250-2254.

[33]Zhang PZ, Yang BS, Yi C, et al., 2020. Measurement-based 5G millimeter-wave propagation characterization in vegetated suburban macrocell environments. IEEE Trans Antenn Propag, 68(7):5556-5567.

[34]Zhao XW, Du F, Geng SY, et al., 2019. Neural network and GBSM based time-varying and stochastic channel modeling for 5G millimeter wave communications. China Commun, 16(6):80-90.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2022 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE