Full Text:   <2930>

Summary:  <1963>

CLC number: U238

On-line Access: 2014-12-04

Received: 2014-07-06

Revision Accepted: 2014-11-03

Crosschecked: 2014-11-24

Cited: 9

Clicked: 7136

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714




-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2014 Vol.15 No.12 P.946-963


Modeling of high-speed wheel-rail rolling contact on a corrugated rail and corrugation development*

Author(s):  Xin Zhao, Ze-feng Wen, Heng-yu Wang, Xue-song Jin, Min-hao Zhu

Affiliation(s):  . State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China

Corresponding email(s):   xinzhao@home.swjtu.edu.cn

Key Words:  Rail corrugation, Frictional rolling contact, Vehicle-track interaction, Friction exploitation level, Explicit finite element method

Xin Zhao, Ze-feng Wen, Heng-yu Wang, Xue-song Jin, Min-hao Zhu. Modeling of high-speed wheel-rail rolling contact on a corrugated rail and corrugation development[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2014, 15(12): 946-963.

@article{title="Modeling of high-speed wheel-rail rolling contact on a corrugated rail and corrugation development",
author="Xin Zhao, Ze-feng Wen, Heng-yu Wang, Xue-song Jin, Min-hao Zhu",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Modeling of high-speed wheel-rail rolling contact on a corrugated rail and corrugation development
%A Xin Zhao
%A Ze-feng Wen
%A Heng-yu Wang
%A Xue-song Jin
%A Min-hao Zhu
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 15
%N 12
%P 946-963
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2014
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A1400191

T1 - Modeling of high-speed wheel-rail rolling contact on a corrugated rail and corrugation development
A1 - Xin Zhao
A1 - Ze-feng Wen
A1 - Heng-yu Wang
A1 - Xue-song Jin
A1 - Min-hao Zhu
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 15
IS - 12
SP - 946
EP - 963
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2014
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A1400191

Short pitch rail corrugations were observed on a recently opened Chinese high-speed line. On the basis of field measurements and observations of corrugations occurred on the high-speed line, a 3D transient rolling contact model is developed using the explicit finite element (FE) method to investigate high-speed vehicle-track interactions in the presence of rail corrugations. The rotational and translational movements of the wheel are introduced as initial conditions in the model. The frictional rolling contact between the wheel and the corrugated rail is solved by a penalty method based surface-to-surface contact algorithm with Coulomb’s law of friction. The contact filter effect is considered automatically by the finite size of the contact patch. Through specifying a time-dependent driving torque applied to the wheel axle, the tangential vehicle-track interaction on the corrugated rail is analyzed in the time domain together with the normal one at different traction levels and at rolling speeds of up to 500 km/h. This analysis focuses on detailed contact solutions, such as distributions of the pressure, surface shear stress, Von Mises (V-M) stress, and frictional work. The corrugation dimensions, traction level, and rolling speed are varied to investigate their influences, building a solid basis for further studying the material damage mechanisms. A theory is proposed based on the simulations to explain the observed phenomenon that the corrugation gradually stabilizes. The traditional multi-body approach is found to overestimate the dynamic wheel-rail interaction on a corrugated rail.


为求解钢轨(短波)波磨处的高速轮轨瞬态滚动接触建立有限元模型,研究影响高速钢轨波磨发展的重要因素。 1. 求解不同牵引条件下轮轨间的瞬态法和切向滚动接触问题,并考虑真实轮轨几何和钢轨波磨,最高模拟速度达500 km/h;2. 基于模拟结果,解释了中国高速线路上发现的钢轨波磨很快稳定下来的现象。 1. 详细分析钢轨波磨处高速轮轨瞬态滚动接触的法、切向解以及由此导致的V-M等效应力和摩擦功沿轨面的波动;2. 变化波磨波长、波深及重要滚动参数如速度和牵引系数等,研究它们对波磨处滚动接触行为的影响;3. 对比上述有限元模型与传统多体动力模型在波磨处的法向轮轨力结果。 1. 法、切向轮轨力及法、切向接触应力均随着波磨几何呈周期性波动,但相位略有差异,V-M等效应力和摩擦功的波动形式接近切向接触应力;2. 牵引系数越大,波磨处V-M等效应力和摩擦功的波动范围越大;3. 名义参数下,对于所研究高铁系统,波长为80 mm左右、速度为250-300 km/h时波磨的动态响应最大,这与现场观测相符;4. 传统多体动力模型会高估钢轨波磨激励的法向轮轨力;5. 钢轨波磨会逐渐稳定下来,通过速度越高进入稳定越快。

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1] Afshari, A., Shabana, A.A., 2010. Directions of the tangential creep forces in railroad vehicle dynamics. Journal of Computational and Nonlinear Dynamics, 5(2):021006

[2] Baeza, L., Fayos, J., Roda, A., 2008. High frequency railway vehicle-track dynamics through flexible rotating wheelsets. Vehicle System Dynamics, 46(7):647-662. 

[3] Cann, P.M., 2006. The “leaves on the line” problem—a study of leaf residue film formation and lubricity under laboratory test conditions. Tribology Letters, 24(2):151-158. 

[4] Chaar, N., Berg, M., 2006. Simulation of vehicle-track interaction with flexible wheelsets, moving track models and field tests. Vehicle System Dynamics, 44(S1):921-931. 

[5] Clark, R.A., Scott, G.A., Poole, W., 1988. Short wave corrugations—an explanation based on slip-stick vibrations. Applied Mechanics Rail Transportation Symposium, 96:141-148. 

[6] Clayton, P., Allery, M.B.P., 1982. Metallurgical aspects of surface damage problems in rails. Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, 21(1):31-46. 

[7] Grassie, S.L., 2005. Rail corrugation: advances in measurement, understanding and treatment. Wear, 258(7-8):1224-1234. 

[8] Grassie, S.L., Kalousek, J., 1993. Rail corrugation: characteristics, causes and treatments. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, 207(16):57-68. 

[9] Gro-Thebing, A., Knothe, K., Hempelmann, K., 1992. Wheel-rail contact mechanics for short wavelengths rail irregularities. Vehicle System Dynamics, 20(S1):210-224. 

[10] Gross-Thebing, A., 1989. Frequency-dependent creep coefficients for three-dimensional rolling contact problem. Vehicle System Dynamics, 18(6):359-374. 

[11] Hiensch, M., Nielsen, J.C.O., Verheijen, E., 2002. Rail corrugation in the Netherlands—measurements and simulations. Wear, 253(1-2):140-149. 

[12] Iwnicki, S., Bezin, Y., Xie, G., 2009. Advances in vehicle-track interaction tools. Railway Gazette International, 165(9):47-52. 

[13] Jin, X.S., Wang, K.Y., Wen, Z.F., 2005. Effect of rail corrugation on vertical dynamics of rail vehicle coupled with a track. Acta Mechanica Sinica, 21(1):95-102. 

[14] Jin, X.S., Xiao, X.B., Wen, Z.F., 2008. Effect of sleeper pitch on rail corrugation at the tangent track in vehicle hunting. Wear, 265(9-10):1163-1175. 

[15] Kalker, J.J., 1990.  Three-dimensional Elastic Bodies in Rolling Contact. Kluwer Academic Publishers,Dordrecht, the Netherlands :

[16] Kazymyrovych, V., Bergstrm, J., Thuvander, F., 2010. Local stresses and material damping in very high cycle fatigue. International Journal of Fatigue, 32(10):1669-1674. 

[17] Knothe, K.L., Grassie, S.L., 1993. Modelling of railway track and vehicle/track interaction at high frequencies. Vehicle System Dynamics, 22(3-4):209-262. 

[18] Knothe, K.L., Gro-Thebing, A., 2008. Short wavelength rail corrugation and non-steady-state contact mechanics. Vehicle System Dynamics, 46(1-2):49-66. 

[19] Li, M.X.D., Berggren, E.G., Berg, M., 2009. Assessment of vertical track geometry quality based on simulations of dynamic track-vehicle interaction. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, 223(2):131-139. 

[20] Li, S.G., Li, Z.L., Dollevoet, R., 2012. Wear study of short pitch corrugation using an integrated 3D FE train-track interaction model. , The 9th International Conference on Contact Mechanics and Wear of Rail/Wheel Systems, Chengdu, China, 216-222. :216-222. 

[21] Li, Z.L., Zhao, X., Esveld, C., 2008. An investigation into the causes of squats: correlation analysis and numerical modeling. Wear, 265(9-10):1349-1355. 

[22] Li, Z.L., Dollevoet, R., Molodova, M., 2011. Squat growth—some observations and the validation of numerical predictions. Wear, 271(1-2):148-157. 

[23] Meyers, M.A., Chawla, K.K., 1999.  Mechanical Behavior of Materials. Prentice Hall,Upper Saddle River, USA :

[24] Molodova, M., Li, Z.L., Dollevoet, R., 2011. Axle box acceleration: measurement and simulation for detection of short track defects. Wear, 271(1-2):349-356. 

[25] Nielsen, J.C.O., 2008. High-frequency vertical wheel-rail contact forces—validation of a prediction model by field testing. Wear, 265(9-10):1465-1471. 

[26] Olofsson, U., Telliskivi, T., 2003. Wear, plastic deformation and friction of two rail steels—a full-scale test and a laboratory study. Wear, 254(1-2):80-93. 

[27] Pang, T., Dhanasekar, M., 2006. Dynamic finite element analysis of the wheel-rail interaction adjacent to the insulated joints. , 7th International Conference on Contact Mechanics and Wear of Rail/Wheel Systems, Brisbane, Australia, 509-516. :509-516. 

[28] Pletz, M., Daves, W., Fischer, F.D., 2009. A dynamic wheel set-crossing model regarding impact, sliding and deformation. , 8th International Conference on Contact Mechanics and Wear of Rail/Wheel Systems, Florence, Italy, 801-808. :801-808. 

[29] Ripke, B., Knothe, K., 1995. Simulation of high frequency vehicle-track interactions. Vehicle System Dynamics, 24(S1):72-85. 

[30] Wen, Z.F., Jin, X.S., Zhang, W.H., 2005. Contact-impact stress analysis of rail joint region using the dynamic finite element method. Wear, 258(7-8):1301-1309. 

[31] Wu, T.X., Thompson, D.J., 2004. The effects of track non-linearity on wheel/rail impact. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, 218(1):1-15. 

[32] Xiao, G.W., Xiao, X.B., Guo, J., 2010. Track dynamic behavior at rail welds at high speed. Acta Mechanica Sinica, 26(3):449-465. 

[33] Xiao, X.B., Ling, L., Xiong, J.Y., 2014. Study on the safety of operating high-speed railway vehicles subjected to crosswinds. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A (Applied Physics & Engineering), 15(9):694-710. 

[34] Xie, G., Iwnicki, S.D., 2008. Simulation of wear on a rough rail using a time-domain wheel-track interaction model. Wear, 265(11-12):1572-1583. 

[35] Zhai, W.M., Xia, H., Cai, C.B., 2013. High-speed train-track-bridge dynamic interactions-Part I: theoretical model and numerical simulation. International Journal of Rail Transportation, 1(1-2):3-24. 

[36] Zhao, X., Li, Z.L., 2011. The solution of frictional wheel-rail rolling contact with a 3-D transient finite element model: validation and error analysis. Wear, 271(1-2):444-452. 

[37] Zhou, L., Shen, Z.Y., 2013. Dynamic analysis of a high-speed train operating on a curved track with failed fasteners. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A (Applied Physics & Engineering), 14(6):447-458. 

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2022 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE