Full Text:   <1418>

Summary:  <1225>

CLC number: TV14

On-line Access: 2017-11-06

Received: 2016-10-06

Revision Accepted: 2017-01-13

Crosschecked: 2017-10-10

Cited: 0

Clicked: 2837

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

 ORCID:

Wan Hanna Melini Wan Mohtar

http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5684-5577

-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2017 Vol.18 No.11 P.882-894

http://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.A1600659


Enhanced understanding on incipient sediment motion and sediment suspension through oscillating-grid turbulence experiments


Author(s):  Wan Hanna Melini Wan Mohtar

Affiliation(s):  Department of Civil & Structural Engineering, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bandar Baru Bangi 43600, Malaysia

Corresponding email(s):   hanna@ukm.edu.my

Key Words: 


Wan Hanna Melini Wan Mohtar. Enhanced understanding on incipient sediment motion and sediment suspension through oscillating-grid turbulence experiments[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2017, 18(11): 882-894.

@article{title="Enhanced understanding on incipient sediment motion and sediment suspension through oscillating-grid turbulence experiments",
author="Wan Hanna Melini Wan Mohtar",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
volume="18",
number="11",
pages="882-894",
year="2017",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",
doi="10.1631/jzus.A1600659"
}

%0 Journal Article
%T Enhanced understanding on incipient sediment motion and sediment suspension through oscillating-grid turbulence experiments
%A Wan Hanna Melini Wan Mohtar
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 18
%N 11
%P 882-894
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2017
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A1600659

TY - JOUR
T1 - Enhanced understanding on incipient sediment motion and sediment suspension through oscillating-grid turbulence experiments
A1 - Wan Hanna Melini Wan Mohtar
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 18
IS - 11
SP - 882
EP - 894
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2017
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A1600659


Abstract: 
Sediment dynamics are usually described in terms of the studies developed under a steady uniform flow, where the hydrodynamic forces are taken those pertaining to the mean time-averaged flow speed. However, the inherent turbulence plays an important role and should be considered implicitly in describing the complexity of turbulence effects in geophysical phenomena. This paper reviews the implementation of isolated turbulence, generated by oscillating grid on two important sediment transport phenomena, i.e., incipient sediment motion and suspension. The generated quasi-isotropic, laterally homogenous turbulence (that is, at a distance further away from the grid) permits an in-depth investigation of the effect of turbulent fluctuations and brings new insights in understanding both phenomena. The critical Shields profile for the incipient sediment motion characterized using the second order of turbulence statistics is qualitatively similar to the Shields curve obtained under a steady uniform flow. In the suspension of particles, there is a two-way interaction between sediment and turbulence. High concentration of suspended particles changes the turbulence structure and the presence of coherent vortices changes the particle settling velocity, which subsequently alters the concentration within the suspension layer. The studies of turbulence on incipient sediment motion and particle suspension provide a better understanding of the underlying physics of sediment behavior at the near-bed region.

This paper discusses the way data from grid turbulence experiments can be used to understand sediment suspension and resuspension. The author analyses data he has obtained for suspension under controlled turbulence conditions in the absence of horizontal flow, and compares the suspension criterion so obtained with criteria obtained form experiments with net horizontal flow.

通过振荡网格实验研究初始泥沙运动和沉积物再悬浮

概要:本文系统地研究了振荡网格生成的湍流效应对初始泥沙运动和沉积物再悬浮的影响,总结了影响泥沙运动和沉积的因素,给出了沉积物在宏观角度移动的基本概念和观点,并详细讨论了湍流对于沉降速度的影响。结果表明,湍流扰动对初始泥沙运动有重要影响。悬浮层内的浓度分布与沉积物特征和湍流结构有关。粒子沉降速度是一个关键参数,它主要受泥沙粒径分布和流体运动影响。
关键词:振荡网格湍流;初始泥沙运动;沉积物再悬浮

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article

Reference

[1]Aliseda, A., Cartellier, A., Hainaux, F., et al., 2002. Effect of preferential concentration on the settling velocity of heavy particles in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 468:77-105.

[2]Amoudry, L., Hsu, T.J., Liu, P.L.F., 2005. Schmidt number and near-bed boundary condition effects on a two-phase dilute sediment transport model. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110:C09003.

[3]Bellinsky, M., Rubin, H., Agnon, Y., et al., 2005. Characteristics of resuspension, settling and diffusion of particulate matter in a water column. Environmental Fluid Mechanics, 5:415-441.

[4]Bodart, J., Cazalbou, J., Joly, L., 2010. Direct numerical simulation of unsheared turbulence diffusing toward a free-slip or no-slip surface. Journal of Turbulence, 11:1-17.

[5]Brownlie, W.R., 1982. Prediction of Flow Depth and Sediment Discharge in Open Channels. PhD Thesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA.

[6]Buscombe, D., Conley, D., 2012. Schmidt number of sand suspensions under oscillating grid turbulence. Coastal Engineering Proceedings, 1(33):20.

[7]Cantwell, M., Burgess, R., King, J., 2008. Resuspension of contaminated field and formulated reference sediments. Part I: evaluation of metal release under controlled laboratory conditions. Chemosphere, 73:1824-1831.

[8]Chanson, H., 2004. The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow: an Introduction. Elsevier Butterworh-Heinemann. Cheng, N.S., Law, A.W.K., 2007. Measurements of turbulence generated by oscillating grid. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 127:201-207.

[9]Davies, A.G., Thorne, P.D., 2005. Modelling and measurement of sediment transport by waves in the vortex ripple regime. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110:C05017.

[10]Doroodchi, E., Evans, G., Schwarz, M., et al., 2008. Influence of turbulence intensity on particle drag coefficients. Chemical Engineering Journal, 135:129-134.

[11]Fernando, H.J.S., de Silva, I.P.D., 1993. Note on secondary flows in oscillating-grid, mixing-box experiments. Physics of Fluids, 5:1849-1851.

[12]Fredsoe, J., Andersen, A.H., Silberg, S., 1985. Distribution of suspended sediment in large waves. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, 11:1041-1059.

[13]Hopfinger, E.J., Toly, J.A., 1976. Spatially decaying turbulence and its relation to mixing across density interfaces. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 78:155-175.

[14]Hunt, J., Graham, J., 1978. Free-stream turbulence near plane boundaries. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 84:209-235.

[15]Huppert, H.E., Turner, J.S., Hallworth, M.A., 1993. Sedimentation and mixing of a turbulent fluid suspension: a laboratory study. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 114:259-267.

[16]Huppert, H.E., Turner, J.S., Hallworth, M.A., 1995. Sedimentation and entrainment in dense layers of suspended particles stirred by an oscillating grid. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 289:263-293.

[17]Ivey, G., Imberger, J., 1991. On the nature of turbulence in a stratified fluid. Part I: the energetics of mixing. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 21:650-658.

[18]Jensen, A., 1997. Experiments and Modeling of Turbulence, Salinity and Sediment Concentration Interactions in a Simulated Estuarine Water Column. MS Thesis, Cornell University, New York, USA.

[19]Kaftori, D., Hetsroni, G., Banerjee, S., 1995. Particle behavior in the turbulent boundary layer. I. Motion, deposition and entrainment. Physics of Fluids, 7:1095-1105.

[20]Lamb, M.P., Dietrich, W.E., Venditti, J.G., 2008. Is the critical Shields stress for incipient sediment motion dependent on channel-bed slope? Journal of Geophysical Research, 113:1-20.

[21]Liu, C., Huhe, A., Tao, L., 2006. Sediment incipience in turbulence generated in a square tank by a vertically oscillating grid. Journal of Coastal Research, 39:465-468.

[22]Lyn, D.A., 1995. Observations of initial sediment motion in a turbulent flow generated in a square tank by a vertically oscillating grid. ASCE Water Resources Engineering Conference, p.608-612.

[23]McDougall, T.J., 1979. Measurements of turbulence in a zero-mean-shear mixed layer. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 94:409-431.

[24]McKenna, S.P., McGillis, W.R., 2004. Observations of flow repeatability and secondary circulation in an oscillating grid-stirred tank. Physics of Fluids, 16:3499-3502.

[25]Medina, P., 2002. Start of Sediment Motion and Resuspension in Turbulent Flows: Applications of Zeromean Flow Grid Stirred Turbulence on Sediment Studies. PhD Thesis, Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Barcelona, Spain.

[26]Medina, P., Sanchez, M.A., Redondo, J.M., 2001. Grid stirred turbulence: applications to the initiation of sediment motion and lift-off studies. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth (B), 26:299-304.

[27]Mei, R., 1994. Effect of turbulence on the particle settling velocity in the nonlinear drag range. International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 20:273-284.

[28]Michallet, H., Mory, M., 2004. Modelling of sediment suspensions in oscillating grid turbulence. Fluid Dynamics Research, 35:87-106.

[29]Mohamed, M.S., Larue, J.C., 1990. The decay power law in grid-generated turbulence. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 219:195-214.

[30]Molinas, A., Wu, B.S., 1998. Effect of size gradation on transport of sediment mixtures. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 124:786-793.

[31]Nelson, J., Shreve, R., McLean, S., et al., 1995. Role of nearbed turbulence structure in bed-load transport and bed form mechanics. Water Resources Research, 31:2071-2086.

[32]Nielsen, P., 1992. Coastal Bottom Boundary Layers and Sediment Transport. World Scientific, Mainland Press, Singapore.

[33]Nielsen, P., Teakle, I.A.L., 2004. Turbulent diffusion of momentum and suspended particles: a finite-mixinglength-theory. Physics of Fluids, 16:2342-2348.

[34]Niño, Y., Garcia, M.H., 1996. Experiments on particleturbulence interactions in the near-wall region of an open channel flow: implications for sediment transport. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 326:285-319.

[35]Noguchi, K., Nezu, I., 2009. Particle-turbulence interaction and local particle concentration in sediment-laden openchannel flows. Journal of Hydro-environment Research, 3:54-68.

[36]Noh, Y., Fernando, H., 1991. Dispersion of suspended particles in turbulent flow. Physics of Fluids A, 3:1730-1740.

[37]Orlins, J.J., Gulliver, J.S., 2003. Turbulence quantification and sediment resuspension in an oscillating grid chamber. Experimental in Fluids, 34:662-677.

[38]Parker, C., Clifford, N.J., Thorne, C.R., 2011. Understanding the influence of slope on the threshold of coarse grain motion: revisiting critical stream power. Geomorphology, 126:61-65.

[39]Perot, B., Moin, P., 1995. Shear-free turbulent boundary layers. Part I. Physical insights into near-wall turbulence. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 295:199-227.

[40]Redondo, J.M., de Madron, X.D., Medina, P., et al., 2001. Comparison of sediment resuspension measurements in sheared and zero-mean turbulent flows. Continental Shelf Research, 32:2095-2103.

[41]Rouse, H., 1939. Experiments on the mechanics of sediment suspension. Proceedings of the 5th International Congress of Applied Mechanics, p.550-554.

[42]Sanchez, M.A., Redondo, J.M., 1998. Observations from grid stirred turbulence. Applied Scientific Research, 59:243-254.

[43]Shields, A., 1936. Application of Similarity Principles and Turbulence Research in Bed-load Movement. Soil Conservation Service Cooperative Library, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA.

[44]Shvidchenko, A.B., Pender, G., 2000. Flume study of the effect of relative depth on the incipient motion of coarse uniform sediments. Water Resources Research, 36:619-628.

[45]Shy, S., Tang, C., Fann, S., 1997. A nearly isotropic turbulence generated by a pair of vibrating grids. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 14:251-262.

[46]Srinivasan, V.S., Cavalcante, R.G., Santos, C.A.G., 2008. A comparative study of some of the sediment transport equations for an alluvial channel with dunes. Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering, 2:28-32.

[47]Sumer, B.M., Chua, L., Cheng, N., et al., 2003. Influence of turbulence on bed load sediment transport. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 129:585-596.

[48]Valsaraj, K., Ravikrishna, R., Orlins, J., et al., 1997. Sediment-to-air mass transfer of semi-volatile contaminants due to sediment resuspension in water. Advances in Environmental Research, 1:145-159.

[49]van Rijn, L.C., 2007. Unified view of sediment transport by currents and waves. II: suspended transport. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 133(6):668-689.

[50]Voropayev, S.I., Fernando, H.J.S., 1996. Propagation of grid turbulence in homogeneous fluids. Physics of Fluids, 8:2435-2440.

[51]Voropayev, S.I., Afanasyev, Y.D., van Heijst, G.J.F., 1995. Two-dimensional flows with zero net momentum: evolution of vortex quadrupoles and oscillating grid turbulence. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 282:21-44.

[52]Wan Mohtar, W.H.M., 2011. The Interaction of Oscillatinggrid Turbulence with a Sediment Layer. PhD Thesis, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

[53]Wan Mohtar, W.H.M., 2016. Oscillating-grid turbulence at large strokes: revisiting the equation of hopfinger and toly. Journal of Hydrodynamics, 28:373-381.

[54]Wan Mohtar, W.H.M., Munro, R.J., 2013. Threshold criteria for incipient sediment motion on an inclined bedform in the presence of oscillating-grid turbulence. Physics of Fluids, 25:015103.

[55]Wang, L., Maxey, M., 1993. Settling velocity and concentration distribution of heavy particles in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 256:27-68.

[56]Wolanski, E., Chappell, J., Ridd, P., et al., 1998. Fluidisation of mud in estuaries. Journal of Geophysical Research, 93:2351-2361.

[57]Wu, B., Molinas, A., Julien, P.Y., 2004. Bed-material load computations for nonuniform sediments. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 130:1002-1012.

[58]Yang, T., Shy, S., 2005. Two-way interaction between solid particles and homegeneous air turbulence: particle settling rate and turbulence modifications measurements. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 526:171-216.

[59]Zhou, Q., Cheng, N., 2008. Experimental investigation of single particle settling in turbulence generated by oscillating grid. Chemical Engineering Journal, 149:289-300.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion

<1>

Please provide your name, email address and a comment





Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2022 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE