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On-line Access: 2022-02-28

Received: 2021-03-19

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 ORCID:

Xiao-bin ZHANG

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7784-3589

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Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2022 Vol.23 No.2 P.83-100

http://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.A2100118


Computational fluid dynamics analysis on flow-induced vibration of a cryogenic poppet valve in consideration of cavitation effect


Author(s):  Ai-bo WEI, Rong GAO, Wei ZHANG, Shun-hao WANG, Rui ZHOU, Xiao-bin ZHANG

Affiliation(s):  Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   zhangxbin@zju.edu.cn

Key Words:  Poppet valve, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Cavitation, Flow-induced Vibration, Fluid-structure interaction (FSI)


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Ai-bo WEI, Rong GAO, Wei ZHANG, Shun-hao WANG, Rui ZHOU, Xiao-bin ZHANG. Computational fluid dynamics analysis on flow-induced vibration of a cryogenic poppet valve in consideration of cavitation effect[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2022, 23(2): 83-100.

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Abstract: 
poppet valves are basic components of many manufacturing operations and industrial processes. The valve plug will withstand unbalanced pressure during the switching process due to the complex fluid-structure interaction (FSI) in the local flow condition, especially with the occurrence of cavitation, which results in a convoluted generation and propagation of mechanical and fluid-dynamic vibrations. In the present work, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approaches are proposed to model the flow-driven movement of the disc, in consideration of the valve stem rigidity, for a cryogenic poppet valve with liquid nitrogen as the working fluid. cavitation effects are included in the CFD simulations. The relationship between the displacement of the disc and the resistance of the stem is obtained in advance using the finite element method (FEM), and implemented in CFD calculations based on the user-defined functions (UDFs). The disc vibration is realized using the dynamic mesh technology according to the resultant flow field force and resistance of the stem determined in the UDF. The vibration characteristics of the valve disc, including velocity and vibration frequency, are presented. The temporal evolutions of cavitation behavior due to the vibration are also captured. Comparisons of results between cavitation and non-cavitation conditions are made, and spectral analysis of the transient pressure fluctuations reveals that the presence of cavitation induces transient unbalanced loads on the valve disc and generates instantaneous tremendous pressure fluctuations in the flow field. Various pressure differences between the inlet and outlet as well as valve openings are modeled to probe the influences of FSI on valve disc vibration mechanisms. The consequent analysis gives deeper insights and improves understanding of the mechanism of the complicated interaction between the cavitating flow and the vibration of the valve disc.

低温调节阀空化流致振动的计算流体力学分析

目的:大型低温风洞大流量液氮调节阀内部流场与阀门结构相互作用,不仅会引起阀芯表面不对称的瞬态压力分布从而导致阀芯的振动,而且会损坏密封装置和管路元件,严重时甚至会导致低温风洞无法正常运行。本文旨在探讨调节阀空化流动及其诱导振动的相互作用机理,并分析阀门开度和进出口压差对阀芯振动特性的影响,以期为低温阀门的设计及优化提供参考。
创新点:1.建立低温调节阀空化与阀芯振动特性耦合作用分析的三维数值模型;2.获得低温调节阀内液氮空化流动的动态演变规律及其与阀芯振动的相互作用机制。
方法:1.通过有限元静力分析,获得阀杆受力与变形的关系曲线(图4);2.通过理论分析,构建阀芯的运动方程(公式(11)),并得到阀芯的流固耦合计算程序(图5);3.通过仿真模拟,建立低温调节阀空化与阀芯振动特性耦合作用分析的三维数值模型;4.使用用户自定义函数和动网格法对阀芯的动态运动过程进行模拟,获得液氮空化流动的动态演变规律,并分析阀门开度和进出口压差对阀芯空化流致振动特性的影响。
结论:1.阀芯的空化流激运动呈现出振幅逐渐增大的周期性振荡规律;在阀门开度为30%,进口压力为1000 kPa时阀芯的振动频率约为116.6 Hz;阀芯在振荡过程中与右侧阀座发生撞击并形成稳定的循环,且伴随着大量空泡在阀芯表面附近快速产生和溃灭。2.空化发生时,大量空泡的破裂导致流场局部压力瞬时突增,并产生10倍于空化未考虑时的压力峰值;考虑空化效应时,阀芯与阀座之间的平均撞击频率和撞击速度相对较小。3.阀门的开度和进出口压差对阀芯的振动特性有显著影响;当开度较小、压差较大时,阀芯的振动频率以及位移脉动峰值显著增大,阀芯撞击阀座的时间也更早且平均撞击速度更大,使阀芯与阀座间的碰撞加剧,进而导致阀芯的冲蚀和疲劳破坏,严重影响阀门的强度性能与使用寿命。

关键词:调节阀;计算流体力学;空化;流致振动;流固耦合

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