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Tung-chai LING


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Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2022 Vol.23 No.5 P.335-357


Recycling Bayer and sintering red muds in brick production: a review

Author(s):  Yu-jia XIAO, Michelle TIONG, Kim Hung MO, Ming-zhi GUO, Tung-chai LING

Affiliation(s):  College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   tcling@hnu.edu.cn, tcling611@yahoo.com

Key Words:  Bauxite residue, Red mud (RM), Firing brick, Cementing brick, Geopolymer brick, Construction materials

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Yu-jia XIAO, Michelle TIONG, Kim Hung MO, Ming-zhi GUO, Tung-chai LING. Recycling Bayer and sintering red muds in brick production: a review[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2022, 23(5): 335-357.

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publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

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%A Tung-chai LING
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%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A2100476

T1 - Recycling Bayer and sintering red muds in brick production: a review
A1 - Yu-jia XIAO
A1 - Michelle TIONG
A1 - Kim Hung MO
A1 - Ming-zhi GUO
A1 - Tung-chai LING
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
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PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
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DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A2100476

red mud (RM) is a solid waste generated from the extraction of alumina from bauxite. It is estimated that more than 1.5 billion tonnes of RM are produced annually worldwide. Stockpiling and landfilling of RM is toxic for the environment due to the presence of high quantities of alkali-generating minerals and metal ions. The high cost of RM treatment and limited land availability encourage the recycling and reuse of RM as construction materials. In many developing countries, brick remains the ubiquitous building material. Thus, it is reasonable to use brick as a medium to accommodate a large amount of RM. In this review, the properties of RM are analyzed and their applications in bricks are discussed. Two common types of RM, namely Bayer red mud (BRM) and sintering red mud (SRM), are introduced along with the methods to produce bricks from them through firing, cementing, and geopolymerization. High alkaline-based BRM is particularly useful as a raw material to produce fired brick and geopolymer brick, whereas SRM, which contains more dicalcium silicate (C2S) and some cementitious phases, can be favorably used to produce cementing brick. RM geopolymer brick normally has more strength (up to 51 MPa) than fired and cementing bricks, and good durability (no efflorescence) with low energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Finally, several solutions have been suggested to resolve the issue of the radioactivity of RM brick, and strict regulation of its application has been imposed in some countries, such as China.




Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


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