Full Text:   <6236>

Summary:  <4814>

CLC number: 

On-line Access: 2021-06-11

Received: 2020-09-27

Revision Accepted: 2021-01-04

Crosschecked: 0000-00-00

Cited: 0

Clicked: 11565

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714




-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2021 Vol.22 No.6 P.431-449


Research advances in bioactive components and health benefits of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruit

Author(s):  Yang LU, Tao BAO, Jianling MO, Jingdan NI, Wei CHEN

Affiliation(s):  Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agro-Food Processing, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   zjuchenwei@zju.edu.cn

Key Words:  Jujube, Bioactive components, Biological activity, Functional foods, Health benefits

Share this article to: More |Next Article >>>

Yang LU, Tao BAO, Jianling MO, Jingdan NI, Wei CHEN. Research advances in bioactive components and health benefits of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruit[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2021, 22(6): 431-449.

@article{title="Research advances in bioactive components and health benefits of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruit",
author="Yang LU, Tao BAO, Jianling MO, Jingdan NI, Wei CHEN",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Research advances in bioactive components and health benefits of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruit
%A Yang LU
%A Tao BAO
%A Jianling MO
%A Jingdan NI
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 22
%N 6
%P 431-449
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2021
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.B2000594

T1 - Research advances in bioactive components and health benefits of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruit
A1 - Yang LU
A1 - Tao BAO
A1 - Jianling MO
A1 - Jingdan NI
A1 - Wei CHEN
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 22
IS - 6
SP - 431
EP - 449
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2021
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.B2000594

jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), a highly nutritious and functional fruit, is reported to have various health benefits and has been extensively planted worldwide, especially in China. Many studies have shown that bioactive components derived from jujube fruit have significant nutritional and potential biological effects. In this paper, the latest progress in research on major bioactive compounds obtained from jujube is reviewed, and the potential biological functions of jujube fruit resources are discussed. As a dietary supplement, jujube fruit is well recognized as a healthy food which contains a variety of bioactive substances, such as polysaccharides, polyphenols, amino acids, nucleotides, fatty acids, dietary fiber, alkaloids, and other nutrients. These nutrients and non-nutritive phytochemicals obtained from jujube fruit have physiological functions including anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-hyperglycemic, immunoregulatory, neuroprotective, sedative, and antiviral functions. Of note is that new constituents, including alkaloids, dietary fiber, and other bioactive substances, as well as the antiviral, hypoglycemic, lipid-lowering, and neuroprotective effects of jujube fruit, are systematically reviewed here for the first time. Meanwhile, problems affecting the exploitation of jujube fruit resources are discussed and further research directions proposed. Therefore, this review provides a useful bibliography for the future development of jujube-based products and the utilization of jujube nutritional components in functional foods.




Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]Abdoul-AzizeS, 2016. Potential benefits of jujube (Zizyphus lotus L.) bioactive compounds for nutrition and health. J Nutr Metab, 2016:2867470.

[2]AbediniMR, ErfanianN, NazemH, et al., 2016. Anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Ziziphus jujube on cervical and breast cancer cells. Avicenna J Phytomed, 6(2):142-148.

[3]Al-DujailiEA, 2015. Natural polyphenols: potential for disease prevention. EC Nutr, 2(2):337-345.

[4]AshaoluTJ, 2020. Immune boosting functional foods and their mechanisms: a critical evaluation of probiotics and prebiotics. Biomed Pharmacother, 130:110625.

[5]AshaoluTJ, AshaoluJO, 2020. Perspectives on the trends, challenges and benefits of green, smart and organic (GSO) foods. Int J Gastron Food Sci, 22:100273.

[6]AshaoluTJ, RealeA, 2020. A holistic review on Euro-Asian lactic acid bacteria fermented cereals and vegetables. Microorganisms, 8(8):1176.

[7]BaoT, HaoX, ShishirMRI, et al., 2021. Cold plasma: an emerging pretreatment technology for the drying of jujube slices. Food Chem, 337:127783.

[8]BriegerK, SchiavoneS, MillerFJ, et al., 2012. Reactive oxygen species: from health to disease. Swiss Med Wkly, 142:w13659.

[9]CaiM, 2019. Fruit-based functional food. In: Galanakis CM (Ed.), The Role of Alternative and Innovative Food Ingredients and Products in Consumer Wellness. Academic Press, New York, p.35-72.

[10]CaiYQ, ZhouXP, HanAZ, et al., 2017. In vitro immunological and anti-complementary activities of two water-soluble lignins from Zizyphus jujube cv. Jinchangzao. Int J Biol Macromol, 105(Pt 1):204-212.

[11]CaiYQ, ChenP, WuCY, et al., 2018. Sulfated modification and biological activities of polysaccharides derived from Zizyphus jujuba cv. Jinchangzao. Int J Biol Macromol, 120(Pt A):1149-1155.

[12]ChenJP, MaiwulanjiangM, LamKYC, et al., 2014. A standardized extract of the fruit of Ziziphus jujuba (jujube) induces neuronal differentiation of cultured PC12 cells: a signaling mediated by protein kinase A. J Agric Food Chem, 62(8):1890-1897.

[13]ChenJP, ChanPH, LamCTW, et al., 2015. Fruit of Ziziphus jujuba (jujube) at two stages of maturity: distinction by metabolic profiling and biological assessment. J Agric Food Chem, 63(2):739-744.

[14]ChenJP, LiuXY, LiZG, et al., 2017. A review of dietary Ziziphus jujuba fruit (jujube): developing health food supplements for brain protection. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2017:3019568.

[15]ChenW, XuY, ZhangLX, et al., 2016. Blackberry subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion affords protection against Ethyl Carbamate-induced cytotoxicity. Food Chem, 212:620-627.

[16]ChoiSH, AhnJB, KozukueN, et al., 2011. Distribution of free amino acids, flavonoids, total phenolics, and antioxidative activities of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruits and seeds harvested from plants grown in Korea. J Agric Food Chem, 59(12):6594-6604.

[17]ChoiSH, AhnJB, KimHJ, et al., 2012. Changes in free amino acid, protein, and flavonoid content in jujube (Ziziphus jujube) fruit during eight stages of growth and antioxidative and cancer cell inhibitory effects by extracts. J Agric Food Chem, 60(41):10245-10255.

[18]CushnieTPT, CushnieB, LambAJ, 2014. Alkaloids: an overview of their antibacterial, antibiotic-enhancing and antivirulence activities. Int J Antimicrob Agents, 44(5):377-386.

[19]DasA, RaychaudhuriU, ChakrabortyR, 2012. Cereal based functional food of Indian subcontinent: a review. J Food Sci Technol, 49(6):665-672.

[20]DashSK, ChattopadhyayS, TripathyS, et al., 2015. Self-assembled betulinic acid augments immunomodulatory activity associates with IgG response. Biomed Pharmacother, 75:205-217.

[21]DieboldL, ChandelNS, 2016. Mitochondrial ROS regulation of proliferating cells. Free Radic Biol Med, 100:86-93.

[22]DingSH, WangRR, ShanY, et al., 2017. Changes in pectin characteristics during the ripening of jujube fruit. J Sci Food Agric, 97(12):4151-4159.

[23]DingX, ZhuFS, GaoSG, 2012. Purification, antitumour and immunomodulatory activity of water-extractable and alkali-extractable polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum L. Food Chem, 131(2):677-684.

[24]ForresterSJ, KikuchiDS, HernandesMS, et al., 2018. Reactive oxygen species in metabolic and inflammatory signaling. Circ Res, 122(6):877-902.

[25]GaoQH, WuCS, YuJG, et al., 2012. Textural characteristic, antioxidant activity, sugar, organic acid, and phenolic profiles of 10 promising jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) selections. J Food Sci, 77(11):C1218-1225.

[26]GaoQH, WuCS, WangM, 2013. The jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruit: a review of current knowledge of fruit composition and health benefits. J Agric Food Chem, 61(14):3351-3363.

[27]GhanteMH, JamkhandePG, 2019. Role of pentacyclic triterpenoids in chemoprevention and anticancer treatment: an overview on targets and underling mechanisms. J Pharmacopuncture, 22(2):55-67.

[28]GhimireS, KimMS, 2017. Jujube (Ziziphus Jujuba Mill.) fruit feeding extends lifespan and increases tolerance to environmental stresses by regulating aging-associated gene expression in Drosophila. Biogerontology, 18(2):263-273.

[29]GowdV, BaoT, ChenW, 2019. Antioxidant potential and phenolic profile of blackberry anthocyanin extract followed by human gut microbiota fermentation. Food Res Int, 120:523-533.

[30]Guil-GuerreroJL, Díaz DelgadoA, Matallana GonzálezMC, et al., 2004. Fatty acids and carotenes in some ber (Ziziphus jujuba Mill) varieties. Plant Foods Hum Nutr, 59(1):23-27.

[31]GuoS, DuanJA, QianDW, et al., 2015a. Content variations of triterpenic acid, nucleoside, nucleobase, and sugar in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit during ripening. Food Chem, 167:468-474.

[32]GuoS, DuanJA, ZhangY, et al., 2015b. Contents changes of triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases, and saccharides in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit during the drying and steaming process. Molecules, 20(12):22329-22340.

[33]GuoXX, MuJL, WangJ, et al., 2014. Preparation of soluble dietary fiber of jujube fruit residues with cellulase. J Agric Sci Technol, 16(5):154-159 (in Chinese).

[34]HalliwellB, 2012. Free radicals and antioxidants: updating a personal view. Nutr Rev, 70(5):257-265.

[35]HanX, BaiBY, ZhouQ, et al., 2020. Dietary supplementation with polysaccharides from Ziziphus Jujuba cv. Pozao intervenes in immune response via regulating peripheral immunity and intestinal barrier function in cyclophosphamide-induced mice. Food Funct, 11(7):5992-6006.

[36]HeSR, ZhaoCB, ZhangJX, et al., 2020. Botanical and traditional uses and phytochemical, pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, and toxicological characteristics of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen: a review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2020:5861821.

[37]HeYY, LiW, ZhangXY, et al., 2020. Physicochemical, functional, and microstructural properties of modified insoluble dietary fiber extracted from rose pomace. J Food Sci Technol, 57(4):1421-1429.

[38]HernándezF, Noguera-ArtiagaL, BurlóF, et al., 2016. Physico-chemical, nutritional, and volatile composition and sensory profile of Spanish jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruits. J Sci Food Agric, 96(8):2682-2691.

[39]HongEH, SongJH, KangKB, et al., 2015. Anti-influenza activity of betulinic acid from Zizyphus jujuba on influenza A/PR/8 virus. Biomol Ther (Seoul), 23(4):345-349.

[40]HouYQ, HeWL, HuSD, et al., 2019. Composition of polyamines and amino acids in plant-source foods for human consumption. Amino Acids, 51(8):1153-1165.

[41]HuangWZ, WangYJ, JiangXY, et al., 2017. Protective effect of flavonoids from Ziziphus jujuba cv. Jinsixiaozao against acetaminophen-induced liver injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation in mice. Molecules, 22(10):1781.

[42]JeongO, KimHS, 2019. Dietary chokeberry and dried jujube fruit attenuates high-fat and high-fructose diet-induced dyslipidemia and insulin resistance via activation of the IRS-1/PI3K/Akt pathway in C57BL/6 J mice. Nutr Metab, 16:38.

[43]JéquierE, 1994. Carbohydrates as a source of energy. Am J Clin Nutr, 59(3):682S-685S.

[44]JiXL, PengQ, YuanYP, et al., 2017. Isolation, structures and bioactivities of the polysaccharides from jujube fruit (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.): a review. Food Chem, 227:349-357.

[45]JiXL, PengQ, YuanYP, et al., 2018a. Extraction and physicochemical properties of polysaccharides from Ziziphus Jujuba cv. Muzao by ultrasound-assisted aqueous two-phase extraction. Int J Biol Macromol, 108:541-549.

[46]JiXL, LiuF, PengQ, et al., 2018b. Purification, structural characterization, and hypolipidemic effects of a neutral polysaccharide from Ziziphus Jujuba cv. Muzao. Food Chem, 245:1124-1130.

[47]JiXL, ZhangF, ZhangR, et al., 2019a. An acidic polysaccharide from Ziziphus Jujuba cv. Muzao: purification and structural characterization. Food Chem, 274:494-499.

[48]JiXL, HouCY, ZhangXL, et al., 2019b. Microbiome-metabolomic analysis of the impact of Zizyphus jujuba cv. Muzao polysaccharides consumption on colorectal cancer mice fecal microbiota and metabolites. Int J Biol Macromol, 131:1067-1076.

[49]JiXL, HouCY, GaoYG, et al., 2020a. Metagenomic analysis of gut microbiota modulatory effects of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) polysaccharides in a colorectal cancer mouse model. Food Funct, 11(1):163-173.

[50]JiXL, YanYZ, HouCY, et al., 2020b. Structural characterization of a galacturonic acid-rich polysaccharide from Ziziphus Jujuba cv. Muzao. Int J Biol Macromol, 147:844-852.

[51]KaeidiA, TaatiM, HajializadehZ, et al., 2015. Aqueous extract of Zizyphus jujuba fruit attenuates glucose induced neurotoxicity in an in vitro model of diabetic neuropathy. Iran J Basic Med Sci, 18(3):301-306.

[52]KammererD, ClausA, SchieberA, et al., 2005. A novel process for the recovery of polyphenols from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace. J Food Sci, 70(2):C157-C163.

[53]KangKB, MingG, KimGJ, et al., 2015. Jubanines F‒J, cyclopeptide alkaloids from the roots of Ziziphus jujuba. Phytochemistry, 119:90-95.

[54]KarraS, SebiiH, YaichH, et al., 2020. Effect of extraction methods on the physicochemical, structural, functional, and antioxidant properties of the dietary fiber concentrates from male date palm flowers. J Food Biochem, 44(6):e13202.

[55]KawabataK, KitamuraK, IrieK, et al., 2017. Triterpenoids isolated from Ziziphus jujuba enhance glucose uptake activity in skeletal muscle cells. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol, 63(3):193-199.

[56]KouXH, ChenQ, LiXH, et al., 2015. Quantitative assessment of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of 15 jujube cultivars. Food Chem, 173:1037-1044.

[57]KuprashDV, NedospasovSA, 2016. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of inflammation. Biochemistry (Moscow), 81(11):1237-1239.

[58]LaiRH, LaiXF, ZhaoWX, et al., 2011. Influence of different extraction methods of tea polyphenols on proportions of catechins. Adv Mater Res, 311-313:2114-2120.

[59]LamCTW, GongAGW, LamKYC, et al., 2016. Jujube-containing herbal decoctions induce neuronal differentiation and the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes in cultured PC12 cells. J Ethnopharmacol, 188:275-283.

[60]LiGP, WuLF, WeiJ, et al., 2013. Two new flavonoids from the fruits of Ziziphus jujuba. Chem Nat Comp, 49(4):617-620.

[61]LiJW, FanLP, DingSD, et al., 2007. Nutritional composition of five cultivars of Chinese jujube. Food Chem, 103(2):454-460.

[62]LiSG, WangDG, TianW, et al., 2008. Characterization and anti-tumor activity of a polysaccharide from Hedysarum polybotrys Hand.-Mazz. Carbohydr Polym, 73(2):344-350.

[63]LiWJ, GuoY, ZhangCY, et al., 2016. Dietary phytochemicals and cancer chemoprevention: a perspective on oxidative stress, inflammation, and epigenetics. Chem Res Toxicol, 29(12):2071-2095.

[64]LiY, GuoS, HuaTT, et al., 2018. Comparative pharmacokinetics of triterpenic acids in normal and immunosuppressed rats after oral administration of Jujubae Fructus extract by UPLC-MS/MS. J Chromatogr B, 1077-1078:13-21.

[65]LinXM, JiXL, WangM, et al., 2019. An alkali-extracted polysaccharide from Zizyphus jujuba cv. Muzao: structural characterizations and antioxidant activities. Int J Biol Macromol, 136:607-615.

[66]LinXM, LiuKS, YinS, et al., 2020. A novel pectic polysaccharide of jujube pomace: structural analysis and intracellular antioxidant activities. Antioxidants, 9(2):127.

[67]LiuAH, DengP, 2016. Optimization of extraction condition of dietary fiber from red dates. Food Ferment Sci Technol, 52(4):58-61 (in Chinese).

[68]MantovaniA, AllavenaP, SicaA, et al., 2008. Cancer-related inflammation. Nature, 454(7203):436-444.

[69]MatschinskyFM, 2005. Glucokinase, glucose homeostasis, and diabetes mellitus. Curr Diab Rep, 5(3):171-176.

[70]MedzhitovR, 2008. Origin and physiological roles of inflammation. Nature, 454(7203):428-435.

[71]MedzhitovR, 2010. Inflammation 2010: new adventures of an old flame. Cell, 140(6):771-776.

[72]MesaikAM, PohHW, BinOY, et al., 2018. In vivo anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-diarrhoeal activity of Ziziphus jujuba fruit extract. Open Access Maced J Med Sci, 6(5):757-766.

[73]MiklavčičVišnjevecA, Baruca ArbeiterA, HladnikM, et al., 2019. An integrated characterization of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) grown in the north Adriatic region. Food Technol Biotechnol, 57(1):17-28.

[74]Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the People’s Republic of China, 2020. Data and Statistics. http://zdscxx.moa.gov.cn:8080/nyb/pc/index.jsp(in Chinese).

[75]NairA, ChauhanP, SahaB, et al., 2019. Conceptual evolution of cell signaling. Int J Mol Sci, 20(13):3292.

[76]NinavePB, PatilSD, 2019. Antiasthmatic potential of Zizyphus jujuba Mill and Jujuboside B.‍—possible role in the treatment of asthma. Respir Physiol Neurobiol, 260:28-36.

[77]OngWY, WuYJ, FarooquiT, et al., 2018. Qi Fu Yin—a Ming dynasty prescription for the treatment of dementia. Mol Neurobiol, 55(9):7389-7400.

[78]PaciollaC, FortunatoS, DipierroN, et al., 2019. Vitamin C in plants: from functions to biofortification. Antioxidants, 8(11):519.

[79]PandeyMB, SinghAK, SinghJP, et al., 2008. Three new cyclopeptide alkaloids from Zizyphus species. J Asian Nat Prod Res, 10(8):709-713.

[80]PeriasamyS, LiuCT, WuWH, et al., 2015. Dietary Ziziphus jujuba fruit influence on aberrant crypt formation and blood cells in colitis-associated colorectal cancer mice. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16(17):7561-7566.

[81]PeriasamyS, WuWH, ChienSP, et al., 2020. Dietary Ziziphus jujuba fruit attenuates colitis-associated tumorigenesis: a pivotal role of the NF-‍κB/IL-6/JAK1/STAT3 pathway. Nutr Cancer, 72(1):120-132.

[82]PhanCW, WangJK, CheahSC, et al., 2018. A review on the nucleic acid constituents in mushrooms: nucleobases, nucleosides and nucleotides. Crit Rev Biotechnol, 38(5):762-777.

[83]PlastinaP, BonofiglioD, VizzaD, et al., 2012. Identification of bioactive constituents of Ziziphus jujube fruit extracts exerting antiproliferative and apoptotic effects in human breast cancer cells. J Ethnopharmacol, 140(2):325-332.

[84]PopracP, JomovaK, SimunkovaM, et al., 2017. Targeting free radicals in oxidative stress-related human diseases. Trends Pharmacol Sci, 38(7):592-607.

[85]PuYF, DingT, WangWJ, et al., 2018. Effect of harvest, drying and storage on the bitterness, moisture, sugars, free amino acids and phenolic compounds of jujube fruit (Zizyphus jujuba cv. Junzao). J Sci Food Agric, 98(2):628-634.

[86]RahmanE, MominA, ZhaoL, et al., 2018. Bioactive, nutritional composition, heavy metal and pesticide residue of four Chinese jujube cultivars. Food Sci Biotechnol, 27(2):323-331.

[87]RanJJ, FanMT, LiYH, et al., 2013. Optimisation of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of polyphenols from apple peel employing cellulase enzymolysis. Int J Food Sci Technol, 48(5):910-917.

[88]RashwanAK, KarimN, ShishirMRI, et al., 2020. Jujube fruit: a potential nutritious fruit for the development of functional food products. J Funct Foods, 75:104205.

[89]RecheJ, AlmansaMS, HernándezF, et al., 2019. Fatty acid profile of peel and pulp of Spanish jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruit. Food Chem, 295:247-253.

[90]Rodríguez VillanuevaJ, Rodríguez VillanuevaL, 2017. Experimental and clinical pharmacology of Ziziphus jujuba Mills. Phytother Res, 31(3):347-365.

[91]SaknaST, MocanA, SultaniHN, et al., 2019. Metabolites profiling of Ziziphus leaf taxa via UHPLC/PDA/ESI-MS in relation to their biological activities. Food Chem, 293:233-246.

[92]SenchinaDS, HallamJE, KohutML, et al., 2014. Alkaloids and athlete immune function: caffeine, theophylline, gingerol, ephedrine, and their congeners. Exerc Immunol Rev, 20:68-93.

[93]ShadAA, AhmadS, UllahR, et al., 2014. Phytochemical and biological activities of four wild medicinal plants. Sci World J, 2014:857363.

[94]ShiQQ, ZhangZ, SuJJ, et al., 2018. Comparative analysis of pigments, phenolics, and antioxidant activity of Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) during fruit development. Molecules, 23(8):1917.

[95]SinghA, ZhaoKC, 2017. Treatment of insomnia with traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Int Rev Neurobiol, 135:97-115.

[96]SonJ, LeeSY, 2020. Ursonic acid exerts inhibitory effects on matrix metalloproteinases via ERK signaling pathway. Chem Biol Interact, 315:108910.

[97]SongJX, BiJF, ChenQQ, et al., 2019. Assessment of sugar content, fatty acids, free amino acids, and volatile profiles in jujube fruits at different ripening stages. Food Chem, 270:344-352.

[98]SongLJ, ZhangL, XuL, et al., 2020. Optimized extraction of total triterpenoids from jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) and comprehensive analysis of triterpenic acids in different cultivars. Plants, 9(4):412.

[99]SunHY, LiCY, NiYJ, et al., 2019. Ultrasonic/microwave-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Camptotheca acuminata fruits and its antitumor activity. Carbohydr Polym, 206:557-564.

[100]TahergorabiZ, AbediniMR, MitraM, et al., 2015. “Ziziphus jujube”: a red fruit with promising anticancer activities. Pharmacogn Rev, 9(18):99-106.

[101]TanidehN, JamshidzadehA, Ghanbari SagheslooA, et al., 2016. Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Ziziphus jujuba on acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis in male rat (Rattus norvegicus). J Coloproctol, 36(4):189-195.

[102]WangBN, LiuLG, HuangQY, et al., 2020. Quantitative assessment of phenolic acids, flavonoids and antioxidant activities of sixteen jujube cultivars from China. Plant Foods Hum Nutr, 75(2):154-160.

[103]WangLY, JingN, LiuXR, et al., 2020. Nurturing and modulating gut microbiota with jujube powder to enhance anti-PD-L1 efficiency against murine colon cancer. J Funct Foods, 64:103647.

[104]WangRR, DingSH, ZhaoDD, et al., 2016. Effect of dehydration methods on antioxidant activities, phenolic contents, cyclic nucleotides, and volatiles of jujube fruits. Food Sci Biotechnol, 25(1):137-143.

[105]WangYG, XuY, MaXQ, et al., 2018. Extraction, purification, characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Zizyphus jujuba cv. Linzexiaozao. Int J Biol Macromol, 118:2138-2148.

[106]WilliamsBA, GrantLJ, GidleyMJ, et al., 2017. Gut fermentation of dietary fibres: physico-chemistry of plant cell walls and implications for health. Int J Mol Sci, 18(10):2203.

[107]WojdyłoA, Carbonell-BarrachinaÁA, LeguaP, et al., 2016. Phenolic composition, ascorbic acid content, and antioxidant capacity of Spanish jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill.) fruits. Food Chem, 201:307-314.

[108]WuGY, 2016. Dietary protein intake and human health. Food Funct, 7(3):1251-1265.

[109]WuH, ZhuJX, DiaoWC, et al., 2014. Ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata). Carbohydr Polym, 113:314-324.

[110]WuLY, ParhoferKG, 2014. Diabetic dyslipidemia. Metabolism, 63(12):1469-1479.

[111]XuH, YuanZZ, MaX, et al., 2018. Triterpenoids with antioxidant activities from Myricaria squamosa. J Asian Nat Prod Res, 20(3):292-298.

[112]XuY, XieLH, XieJH, et al., 2019. Pelargonidin-3-O-rutinoside as a novel α‍-glucosidase inhibitor for improving postprandial hyperglycemia. Chem Commun, 55(1):39-42.

[113]YamamotoS, WangMF, AdjeiAA, et al., 1997. Role of nucleosides and nucleotides in the immune system, gut reparation after injury, and brain function. Nutrition, 13(4):372-374.

[114]YanJK, WuLX, CaiWD, et al., 2019. Subcritical water extraction-based methods affect the physicochemical and functional properties of soluble dietary fibers from wheat bran. Food Chem, 298:124987.

[115]YangHM, YinZQ, ZhaoMG, et al., 2018. Pentacyclic triterpenoids from Cyclocarya paliurus and their antioxidant activities in FFA-induced HepG2 steatosis cells. Phytochemistry, 151:119-127.

[116]YenMH, LeeJJ, YehCF, et al., 2014. Yakammaoto inhibited human coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4)-induced airway and renal tubular injuries by preventing viral attachment, internalization, and replication. J Ethnopharmacol, 151(3):1056-1063.

[117]YoonSR, JoYJ, YangSL, et al., 2009. Sanjoinine A isolated from Semen Zizyphi Spinosi protects against kainic acid-induced convulsions. Arch Pharm Res, 32(11):1515-1523.

[118]YuL, JiangBP, LuoD, et al., 2012. Bioactive components in the fruits of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. against the inflammatory irritant action of Euphorbia plants. Phytomedicine, 19(3-4):239-244.

[119]YuanJP, ZhaoSY, WangJH, et al., 2008. Distribution of nucleosides and nucleobases in edible fungi. J Agric Food Chem, 56(3):809-815.

[120]YuanYH, GaoZP, ShiYG, 2002. Industrialization of Chinese jujube. J Northwest Sci-Tech Univ Agric For (Nat Sci Ed), 30(S1):95-98 (in Chinese).

[121]ZhangH, JiangL, YeS, et al., 2010. Systematic evaluation of antioxidant capacities of the ethanolic extract of different tissues of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) from China. Food Chem Toxicol, 48(6):1461-1465.

[122]ZhangXQ, QuXY, LiuC, et al., 2019. Optimization of extraction technology and oxidation resistance analysis of alkaloids in jujube. Mol Plant Breed, 17(3):972-977 (in Chinese).

[123]ZhaoHX, ZhangHS, YangSF, 2014. Phenolic compounds and its antioxidant activities in ethanolic extracts from seven cultivars of Chinese jujube. Food Sci Hum Well, 3(3-4):183-190.

[124]ZhaoY, YangXB, RenDY, et al., 2014. Preventive effects of jujube polysaccharides on fructose-induced insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in mice. Food Funct, 5(8):1771-1778.

[125]ZouM, ChenYL, Sun-WaterhouseD, et al., 2018. Immunomodulatory acidic polysaccharides from Zizyphus jujuba cv. Huizao: insights into their chemical characteristics and modes of action. Food Chem, 258:35-42.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2024 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE