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Hikmet BUDAK


Chao LI


Baohong ZHANG


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Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2021 Vol.22 No.4 P.253-284


CRISPR/Cas: a Nobel Prize award-winning precise genome editing technology for gene therapy and crop improvement

Author(s):  Chao LI, Eleanor BRANT, Hikmet BUDAK, Baohong ZHANG

Affiliation(s):  Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory for Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Wuhan430062, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   zhangb@ecu.edu, hikmet.budak@icloud.com

Key Words:  Genome editing, Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas), Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Cancer, Precision breeding, Crop improvement, Gene knock-out/in, Gene repair/replacement

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Chao LI, Eleanor BRANT, Hikmet BUDAK, Baohong ZHANG. CRISPR/Cas: a Nobel Prize award-winning precise genome editing technology for gene therapy and crop improvement[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2021, 22(4): 253-284.

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author="Chao LI, Eleanor BRANT, Hikmet BUDAK, Baohong ZHANG",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

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%DOI 10.1631/jzus.B2100009

T1 - CRISPR/Cas: a Nobel Prize award-winning precise genome editing technology for gene therapy and crop improvement
A1 - Chao LI
A1 - Eleanor BRANT
A1 - Hikmet BUDAK
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J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
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PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
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DOI - 10.1631/jzus.B2100009

Since it was first recognized in bacteria and archaea as a mechanism for innate viral immunity in the early 2010s, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) has rapidly been developed into a robust, multifunctional genome editing tool with many uses. Following the discovery of the initial CRISPR/Cas-based system, the technology has been advanced to facilitate a multitude of different functions. These include development as a base editor, prime editor, epigenetic editor, and CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) and CRISPR activator (CRISPRa) gene regulators. It can also be used for chromatin and RNA targeting and imaging. Its applications have proved revolutionary across numerous biological fields, especially in biomedical and agricultural improvement. As a diagnostic tool, CRISPR has been developed to aid the detection and screening of both human and plant diseases, and has even been applied during the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. CRISPR/Cas is also being trialed as a new form of gene therapy for treating various human diseases, including cancers, and has aided drug development. In terms of agricultural breeding, precise targeting of biological pathways via CRISPR/Cas has been key to regulating molecular biosynthesis and allowing modification of proteins, starch, oil, and other functional components for crop improvement. Adding to this, CRISPR/Cas has been shown capable of significantly enhancing both plant tolerance to environmental stresses and overall crop yield via the targeting of various agronomically important gene regulators. Looking to the future, increasing the efficiency and precision of CRISPR/Cas delivery systems and limiting off-target activity are two major challenges for wider application of the technology. This review provides an in-depth overview of current CRISPR development, including the advantages and disadvantages of the technology, recent applications, and future considerations.




Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


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