Full Text:   <1722>

Summary:  <1209>

CLC number: O643

On-line Access: 2018-01-12

Received: 2017-05-13

Revision Accepted: 2017-11-27

Crosschecked: 2017-12-15

Cited: 1

Clicked: 2278

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714


Ewa Nowicka


Meenakshisundaram Sankar


-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2018 Vol.19 No.1 P.5-20


Designing Pd-based supported bimetallic catalysts for environmental applications

Author(s):  Ewa Nowicka, Meenakshisundaram Sankar

Affiliation(s):  Faculty of Chemistry, Technical University Berlin, Berlin 10623, Germany; more

Corresponding email(s):   nowicka@tu-berlin.de, sankar@cardiff.ac.uk

Key Words:  Palladium, Palladium alloys, Bimetallic catalysts, Environmental applications

Ewa Nowicka, Meenakshisundaram Sankar. Designing Pd-based supported bimetallic catalysts for environmental applications[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2018, 19(1): 5-20.

@article{title="Designing Pd-based supported bimetallic catalysts for environmental applications",
author="Ewa Nowicka, Meenakshisundaram Sankar",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Designing Pd-based supported bimetallic catalysts for environmental applications
%A Ewa Nowicka
%A Meenakshisundaram Sankar
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 19
%N 1
%P 5-20
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2018
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A1700257

T1 - Designing Pd-based supported bimetallic catalysts for environmental applications
A1 - Ewa Nowicka
A1 - Meenakshisundaram Sankar
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 19
IS - 1
SP - 5
EP - 20
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2018
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A1700257

Supported bimetallic nanoparticulate catalysts are an important class of heterogeneous catalysts for many reactions including selective oxidation, hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis, reforming, biomass conversion reactions, and many more. The activity, selectivity, and stability of these catalysts depend on their structural features including particle size, composition, and morphology. In this review, we present important structural features relevant to supported bimetallic catalysts focusing on Pd-based bimetallic systems and recently reported strategies to control them through different synthesis methodologies. Further, we focus on a few reactions that are relevant to environmental catalysis, i.e. CO oxidation, hydrocarbon oxidation, hydrodechlorination, and NOx decomposition, where Pd-based catalysts are often used successfully. In spite of much progress in these areas, still there is a need for more advanced catalytic technologies to address the grand challenges like environmental remediation. Some of the recent advances in the design of bimetallic catalysts were made because of the combined efforts of material scientists, spectroscopists, microscopists, catalysis chemists, and engineers through state-of-the-art characterization methodologies, mechanistic investigations, and structure-activity correlations. This review is aimed at inspiring scientists to rationally design catalysts for a green and sustainable future.



Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]Alonso DM, Wettstein SG, Dumesic JA, 2012. Bimetallic catalysts for upgrading of biomass to fuels and chemicals. Chemical Society Reviews, 41(24):8075-8098.

[2]An K, Somorjai GA, 2012. Size and shape control of metal nanoparticles for reaction selectivity in catalysis. ChemCatChem, 4(10):1512-1524.

[3]Anderson JA, Garcia MF, 2012. Supported Metal in Catalysis, 2nd Edition. World Scientific Publishing, p.1-552.

[4]Baeza JA, Calvo L, Rodriguez JJ, et al., 2015. Activity enhancement and selectivity tuneability in aqueous phase hydrodechlorination by use of controlled growth Pd-Rh nanoparticles. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 168-169:283-292.

[5]Beck A, Horvath A, Schay Z, et al., 2007. Sol derived gold-palladium bimetallic nanoparticles on TiO2: structure and catalytic activity in CO oxidation. Topics in Catalysis, 44(1-2):115-121.

[6]Bell AT, 2003. The impact of nanoscience on heterogeneous catalysis. Science, 299(5613):1688-1691.

[7]Biella S, Castiglioni GL, Fumagalli C, et al., 2002. Application of gold catalysts to selective liquid phase oxidation. Catalysis Today, 72(1-2):43-49.

[8]Biella S, Porta F, Prati L, et al., 2003. Surfactant-protected gold particles: new challenge for gold-on-carbon catalysts. Catalysis Letters, 90(1-2):23-29.

[9]Bodnariuk P, Coq B, Ferrat G, et al., 1989. Carbon chlorine hydrogenolysis over PdRh and PdSn bimetallic catalysts. Journal of Catalysis, 116(2):459-466.

[10]Bonarowska M, Malinowski A, Karpinski Z, 1999. Hydrogenolysis of C-C and C-Cl bonds by Pd-Re/Al2O3 catalysts. Applied Catalysis A: General, 188(1-2):145-154.

[11]Cardenas-Lizana F, Hao YF, Crespo-Quesada M, et al., 2013. Selective gas phase hydrogenation of p-chloronitrobenzene over Pd catalysts: role of the support. ACS Catalysis, 3(6):1386-1396.

[12]Carter JH, Althahban S, Nowicka E, et al., 2016. Synergy and anti-synergy between palladium and gold in nanoparticles dispersed on a reducible support. ACS Catalysis, 6(10):6623-6633.

[13]Chen HL, Su CH, Chen HT, 2012. Catalytic CO oxidation by Au-Pd core-shell nanoparticles: a first-principles study. Chemical Physics Letters, 536:100-103.

[14]Clark JH, Farmer TJ, Herrero-Davila L, et al., 2016. Circular economy design considerations for research and process development in the chemical sciences. Green Chemistry, 18(14):3914-3934.

[15]Consul JMD, Peralta CA, Ruiz JC, et al., 2008. Direct decomposition of nitric oxide on bimetallic catalysts: effect of metals bonding. Catalysis Today, 133:475-479.

[16]Coq B, Figueras F, 2001. Bimetallic palladium catalysts: influence of the co-metal on the catalyst performance. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 173(1-2):117-134.

[17]Cordi EM, Falconer JL, 1996. Oxidation of volatile organic compounds on Al2O3, Pd/Al2O3, and PdO/Al2O3 catalysts. Journal of Catalysis, 162(1):104-117.

[18]Dimitratos N, Lopez-Sanchez JA, Hutchings GJ, 2009. Green catalysis with alternative feedstocks. Topics in Catalysis, 52(3):258-268.

[19]Edwards J, Landon P, Carley AF, et al., 2007. Nanocrystalline gold and gold-palladium as effective catalysts for selective oxidation. Journal of Materials Research, 22(4):831-837.

[20]Ellert OG, Tsodikov MV, Nikolaev SA, et al., 2014. Bimetallic nanoalloys in heterogeneous catalysis of industrially important reactions: synergistic effects and structural organization of active components. Russian Chemical Reviews, 83(8):718-732.

[21]Ersson A, Kusar H, Carroni R, et al., 2003. Catalytic combustion of methane over bimetallic catalysts a comparison between a novel annular reactor and a high-pressure reactor. Catalysis Today, 83(1-4):265-277.

[22]Fang YL, Heck KN, Alvarez PJJ, et al., 2011. Kinetics analysis of palladium/gold nanoparticles as colloidal hydrodechlorination catalysts. ACS Catalysis, 1(2):128-138.

[23]Ferrando R, Jellinek J, Johnston RL, 2008. Nanoalloys:  from theory to applications of alloy clusters and nanoparticles. Chemical Reviews, 108(3):845-910.

[24]Ferrandon M, Carno J, Jaras S, et al., 1999a. Total oxidation catalysts based on manganese or copper oxides and platinum or palladium I: characterisation. Applied Catalysis A: General, 180(1-2):141-151.

[25]Ferrandon M, Carno J, Jaras S, et al., 1999b. Total oxidation catalysts based on manganese or copper oxides and platinum or palladium II: activity, hydrothermal stability and sulphur resistance. Applied Catalysis A: General, 180(1-2):153-161.

[26]Ferreira RSG, de Oliveira PGP, Noronha FB, 2004. Characterization and catalytic activity of Pd/V2O5/Al2O3 catalysts on benzene total oxidation. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 50(4):243-249.

[27]Garcia T, Solsona B, Cazorla Amoros D, et al., 2006. The oxidation of volatile organic compounds by vanadium promoted palladium-titania catalysts: comparison of aromatic and polyaromatic compounds. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 62(66-72):66-76.

[28]Garcia T, Weng WH, Solsona B, et al., 2011. The significance of the order of impregnation on the activity of vanadia promoted palladium-alumina catalysts for propane total oxidation. Catalysis Science & Technology, 1(8):1367-1375.

[29]Geissdoerfer M, Savaget P, Bocken NMP, et al., 2017. The circular economy—a new sustainability paradigm? Journal of Cleaner Production, 143:757-768.

[30]Gregori M, Fornasari G, Marchionni G, et al., 2014. Hydrogen-assisted dechlorination of CF3OCFCL-CF2Cl CF3OCF=CF2 over different metal-supported catalysts. Applied Catalysis A: General, 470:123-131.

[31]Gremminger AT, de Carvalho HWP, Popescu R, et al., 2015. Influence of gas composition on activity and durability of bimetallic Pd-Pt/Al2O3 catalysts for total oxidation of methane. Catalysis Today, 258:470-480.

[32]Ham HC, Stephens JA, Hwang GS, et al., 2012. Role of small Pd ensembles in boosting CO oxidation in AuPd alloys. Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 3(5):566-570.

[33]Han Y, Liu C, Horita J, et al., 2016. Trichloroethene hydrodechlorination by Pd-Fe bimetallic nanoparticles: solute-induced catalyst deactivation analyzed by carbon isotope fractionation. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 188: 77-86.

[34]Haneda M, Suzuki K, Sasaki M, et al., 2014. Catalytic performance of bimetallic PtPd/Al2O3 for diesel hydrocarbon oxidation and its implementation by acidic additives. Applied Catalysis A: General, 475:109-115.

[35]Harada M, Asakura K, Ueki Y, et al., 1992. Structure of polymer-protected palladium platinum bimetallic clusters at the oxidized state extended X-ray absorption fine-structure analysis. Journal of Physical Chemistry, 96(24):9730-9738.

[36]Harada M, Asakura K, Ueki Y, et al., 1993. Structural-analysis of polymer-protected palladium rhodium bimetallic clusters using EXAFS spectroscopy. Journal of Physical Chemistry, 97(41):10742-10749.

[37]Hazlett MJ, Moses-Debusk M, Parks JE, et al., 2017. Kinetic and mechanistic study of bimetallic Pt-Pd/Al2O3 catalysts for CO and C3H6 oxidation. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 202:404-417.

[38]He C, Li JJ, Li P, et al., 2010. Comprehensive investigation of Pd/ZSM-5/MCM-48 composite catalysts with enhanced activity and stability for benzene oxidation. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 96(3-4):466-475.

[39]Heck KN, Janesko BG, Scuseria GE, et al., 2008. Observing metal-catalyzed chemical reactions in situ using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on Pd-Au nanoshells. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 130(49):16592-16600.

[40]Heinrichs B, Delhez P, Schoebrechts JP, et al., 1997. Palladium-silver sol-gel catalysts for selective hydrodechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane into ethylene. Journal of Catalysis, 172(2):322-335.

[41]Hungria AB, Iglesias-Juez A, Martinez-Arias A, et al., 2002. Effects of copper on the catalytic properties of bimetallic Pd-Cu/(Ce, Zr)x/Al2O3 and Pd-Cu/(Ce, Zr)x catalysts for CO and NO elimination. Journal of Catalysis, 206(2):281-294.

[42]Hutchings GJ, Mirzaei AA, Joyner RW, et al., 1996. Ambient temperature CO oxidation using copper manganese oxide catalysts prepared by coprecipitation: effect of ageing on catalyst performance. Catalysis Letters, 42(1-2):21-24.

[43]Hutchings GJ, Mirzaei AA, Joyner RW, et al., 1998. Effect of preparation conditions on the catalytic performance of copper manganese oxide catalysts for CO oxidation. Applied Catalysis A: General, 166(1):143-152.

[44]Hutchings GJ, 2008a. Nanocrystalline gold and gold palladium alloy catalysts for chemical synthesis. Chemical Communications, (10):1148-1164.

[45]Hutchings GJ, 2008b. Nanocrystalline gold and gold-palladium alloy oxidation catalysts: a personal reflection on the nature of the active sites. Dalton Transactions, (41):5523-5536.

[46]Hutchings GJ, 2008c. Supported gold and gold palladium catalysts for selective chemical synthesis. Catalysis Today, 138(1-2):9-14.

[47]Hutchings GJ, Kiely CJ, 2013. Strategies for the synthesis of supported gold palladium nanoparticles with controlled morphology and composition. Accounts of Chemical Research, 46(8):1759-1772.

[48]Jones C, Cole KJ, Taylor SH, et al., 2009. Copper manganese oxide catalysts for ambient temperature carbon monoxide oxidation: effect of calcination on activity. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 305(1-2):121-124.

[49]Kaya S, Uner D, 2008. CO oxidation over mono and bi-metallic sequentially impregnated Pd-Pt catalysts. Turkish Journal of Chemistry, 32(5):645-652.

[50]Kaya S, Erunal E, Shaltaf R, et al., 2009. On the structure sensitivity of CO oxidation on alumina supported Pd-Pt bimetallic catalysts. Turkish Journal of Chemistry, 33(1):11-21.

[51]Kim HY, Henkelman G, 2013. CO adsorption-driven surface segregation of Pd on Au/Pd bimetallic surfaces: role of defects and effect on CO oxidation. ACS Catalysis, 3(11):2541-2546.

[52]Kugai J, Miller JT, Guo N, et al., 2011a. Oxygen-enhanced water gas shift on ceria-supported Pd-Cu and Pt-Cu bimetallic catalysts. Journal of Catalysis, 277(1):46-53.

[53]Kugai J, Miller JT, Guo N, et al., 2011b. Role of metal components in Pd-Cu bimetallic catalysts supported on CeO2 for the oxygen-enhanced water gas shift. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 105(3-4):306-316.

[54]Lapisardi G, Urfels L, Gelin P, et al., 2006. Superior catalytic behaviour of Pt-doped Pd catalysts in the complete oxidation of methane at low temperature. Catalysis Today, 117(4):564-568.

[55]Li Y, Liu H, Ma L, et al., 2016. Influence of Pd precursors and Cl addition on performance of Pd-Re catalysts in glycerol hydrogenolysis to propanediols. Applied Catalysis A: General, 522:13-20.

[56]Liu J, Lucci FR, Yang M, et al., 2016. Tackling CO poisoning with single-atom alloy catalysts. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 138(20):6396-6399.

[57]Lucci FR, Liu J, Marcinkowski MD, et al., 2015. Selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene on platinum–copper alloys at the single-atom limit. Nature Communications, 6:8550.

[58]Maillet T, Solleau C, Barbier Jr J, et al., 1997. Oxidation of carbon monoxide, propene, propane and methane over a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst. Effect of the chemical state of Pd. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 14(1-2):85-95.

[59]Maione A, Andre F, Ruiz P, 2007a. The effect of Rh addition on Pd/γ-Al2O3 catalysts deposited on fecralloy fibers for total combustion of methane. Applied Catalysis A: General, 333(1):1-10.

[60]Maione A, Andre F, Ruiz P, 2007b. Structured bimetallic Pd-Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalysts on fecralloy fibers for total combustion of methane. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 75(1-2):59-70.

[61]Martin-Martinez M, Gomez-Sainero LM, Palomar J, et al., 2016. Dechlorination of dichloromethane by hydrotreatment with bimetallic Pd-Pt/C catalyst. Catalysis Letters, 146(12):2614-2621.

[62]Masuda K, Shinoda K, Kato T, et al., 1998. Activity enhancement of Ag/mordenite catalysts by addition of palladium for the removal of nitrogen oxides from diesel engine exhaust gas. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 15(1-2):29-35.

[63]Moreno M, de Los Rios C, Rowe Z, et al., 2016. A conceptual framework for circular design. Sustainability, 8(9):937.

[64]Newsome DS, 1980. The water-gas shift reaction. Catalysis Reviews, 21(2):275-318.

[65]Nutt MO, Heck KN, Alvarez P, et al., 2006. Improved Pd-on-Au bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts for aqueous-phase trichloroethene hydrodechlorination. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 69(1-2):115-125.

[66]Paalanen P, Weckhuysen BM, Sankar M, 2013. Progress in controlling the size, composition and nanostructure of supported gold-palladium nanoparticles for catalytic applications. Catalysis Science & Technology, 3(11):2869-2880.

[67]Papaefthimiou P, Ioannides T, Verykios XE, 1997. Combustion of non-halogenated volatile organic compounds over group VIII metal catalysts. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 13(3-4):175-184.

[68]Papaefthimiou P, Ioannides T, Verykios XE, 1998. Performance of doped Pt/TiO2 catalysts for combustion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 15(1-2):75-92.

[69]Parinyaswan A, Pongstabodee S, Luengnaruemitchai A, 2006. Catalytic performances of Pt-Pd/CeO2 catalysts for selective CO oxidation. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 31(13):1942-1949.

[70]Pitzer EC, Frazer JCW, 1941. The physical chemistry of Hopcalite catalysts. Journal of Physical Chemistry, 45(5):761-776.

[71]Ponec V, 2001. Alloy catalysts: the concepts. Applied Catalysis A: General, 222(1-2):31-45.

[72]Prati L, Martra G, 1999. New gold catalysts for liquid phase oxidation. Gold Bulletin, 32(3):96-101.

[73]Prati L, Villa A, 2014. Gold colloids: from quasi-homogeneous to heterogeneous catalytic systems. Accounts of Chemical Research, 47(3):855-863.

[74]Pritchard J, Kesavan L, Piccinini M, et al., 2010. Direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide and benzyl alcohol oxidation using Au−Pd catalysts prepared by sol immobilization. Langmuir, 26(21):16568-16577.

[75]Qian K, Huang WX, 2011. Au-Pd alloying-promoted thermal decomposition of PdO supported on SiO2 and its effect on the catalytic performance in CO oxidation. Catalysis Today, 164(1):320-324.

[76]Qian K, Luo L, Jiang Z, et al., 2017. Alloying Au surface with Pd reduces the intrinsic activity in catalyzing CO oxidation. Catalysis Today, 280:253-258.

[77]Qiao B, Wang A, Yang X, et al., 2011. Single-atom catalysis of CO oxidation using Pt1/FeOx. Nature Chemistry, 3(8):634-641.

[78]Rousset JL, Renouprez AJ, Cadrot AM, 1998. Ion-scattering study and Monte Carlo simulations of surface segregation in Pd-Pt nanoclusters obtained by laser vaporization of bulk alloys. Physical Review B, 58(4):2150-2156.

[79]Sankar M, Dimitratos N, Miedziak PJ, et al., 2012a. Designing bimetallic catalysts for a green and sustainable future. Chemical Society Reviews, 41(24):8099-8139.

[80]Sankar M, He Q, Morad M, et al., 2012b. Synthesis of stable ligand-free gold-palladium nanoparticles using a simple excess anion method. ACS Nano, 6(8):6600-6613.

[81]Sinfelt JH, 1977. Catalysis by alloys and bimetallic clusters. Accounts of Chemical Research, 10(1):15-20.

[82]Sinfelt JH, 1983. Bimetallic Catalysts: Discoveries, Concepts and Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA.

[83]Smith RJB, Loganathan M, Shantha MS, 2010. A review of the water gas shift reaction kinetics. International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering, 8(1):R4.

[84]Strobel R, Grunwaldt JD, Camenzind A, et al., 2005. Flame-made alumina supported Pd-Pt nanoparticles: structural properties and catalytic behavior in methane combustion. Catalysis Letters, 104(1-2):9-16.

[85]Suo ZH, Ma CY, Jin MS, et al., 2008. The active phase of Au-Pd/Al2O3 for CO oxidation. Catalysis Communications, 9(13):2187-2190.

[86]Tang WX, Deng YZ, Chen YF, 2017. Promoting effect of acid treatment on Pd-Ni/SBA-15 catalyst for complete oxidation of gaseous benzene. Catalysis Communications, 89: 86-90.

[87]Taylor M, Ndifor EN, Garcia T, et al., 2008. Deep oxidation of propane using palladium-titania catalysts modified by niobium. Applied Catalysis A: General, 350(1):63-70.

[88]Tzitzios VK, Georgakilas V, 2005. Catalytic reduction of N2O over Ag-Pd/Al2O3 bimetallic catalysts. Chemosphere, 59(6):887-891.

[89]van den Oetelaar LCA, Nooij OW, Oerlemans S, et al., 1998. Surface segregation in supported Pd-Pt nanoclusters and alloys. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 102(18):3445-3455.

[90]Vassileva M, Andreev A, Dancheva S, et al., 1989. Complete catalytic-oxidation of benzene over supported vanadium-oxides modified by palladium. Applied Catalysis, 49(1):125-141.

[91]Veisz B, Toth L, Teschner D, et al., 2005. Palladium-platinum powder catalysts manufactured by colloid synthesis: I. Preparation and characterization. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 238(1-2):56-62.

[92]Velazquez JC, Leekumjorn S, Hopkins GD, et al., 2016. High activity and regenerability of a palladium-gold catalyst for chloroform degradation. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 91(10):2590-2596.

[93]Venezia AM, Liotta LF, Pantaleo G, et al., 2003. Activity of SiO2 supported gold-palladium catalysts in CO oxidation. Applied Catalysis A: General, 251(2):359-368.

[94]Villa A, Campione C, Prati L, 2007. Bimetallic gold/palladium catalysts for the selective liquid phase oxidation of glycerol. Catalysis Letters, 115(3-4):133-136.

[95]Villa A, Wang D, Su DS, et al., 2009. Gold sols as catalysts for glycerol oxidation: the role of stabilizer. ChemCatChem, 1(4):510-514.

[96]Villa A, Wang D, Su DS, et al., 2015. New challenges in gold catalysis: bimetallic systems. Catalysis Science & Technology, 5(1):55-68.

[97]Wang D, Villa A, Porta F, et al., 2008. Bimetallic gold/ palladium catalysts: correlation between nanostructure and synergistic effects. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 112(23):8617-8622.

[98]Wei X, Yang XF, Wang AQ, et al., 2012. Bimetallic Au–Pd alloy catalysts for N2O decomposition: effects of surface structures on catalytic activity. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 116(10):6222-6232.

[99]Wilburn MS, Epling WS, 2017. Sulfur deactivation and regeneration of mono- and bimetallic Pd-Pt methane oxidation catalysts. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 206:589-598.

[100]Xu J, White T, Li P, et al., 2010. Biphasic Pd-Au alloy catalyst for low-temperature CO oxidation. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 132(30):10398-10406.

[101]Yang XF, Wang A, Qiao B, et al., 2013. Single-atom catalysts: a new frontier in heterogeneous catalysis. Accounts of Chemical Research, 46(8):1740-1748.

[102]Yashima M, Falk LKL, Palmqvist AEC, et al., 2003. Structure and catalytic properties of nanosized alumina supported platinum and palladium particles synthesized by reaction in microemulsion. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 268(2):348-356.

[103]Yazawa Y, Yoshida H, Takagi N, et al., 1998. Oxidation state of palladium as a factor controlling catalytic activity of Pd/SiO2-Al2O3 in propane combustion. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 19(3-4):261-266.

[104]Zhang WL, Huang Y, Gong T, et al., 2017. Activated carbon supported palladium-iron oxide catalysts fabricated by atomic layer deposition for hydrodechlorination of 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Catalysis Communications, 93:47-52.

[105]Zhang XW, Shen SC, Yu LE, et al., 2003. Oxidative decomposition of naphthalene by supported metal catalysts. Applied Catalysis A: General, 250(2):341-352.

[106]Zhong Z, Male KB, Luong JHT, 2003. More recent progress in the preparation of Au nanostructures, properties, and applications. Analytical Letters, 36(15):3097-3118.

[107]Zhou J, Chen H, Chen Q, et al., 2016. Bimetallic Au-decorated Pd catalyst for the liquid phase hydrodechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol. Applied Surface Science, 387:588-594.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2022 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE