Full Text:   <2732>

Summary:  <1738>

CLC number: O47; O64

On-line Access: 2018-05-04

Received: 2017-05-16

Revision Accepted: 2017-07-27

Crosschecked: 2018-04-11

Cited: 0

Clicked: 4046

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714


Jing-yu Qu


-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2018 Vol.19 No.5 P.399-408


Influence of annealing conditions on the properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films fabricated by electrodeposition

Author(s):  Jing-yu Qu, Zheng-fei Guo, Kun Pan, Wei-wei Zhang, Xue-jin Wang

Affiliation(s):  College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China

Corresponding email(s):   xjwang@cau.edu.cn

Key Words:  Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films, Electrodeposition, Selenization, Raman spectroscopy

Jing-yu Qu, Zheng-fei Guo, Kun Pan, Wei-wei Zhang, Xue-jin Wang. Influence of annealing conditions on the properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films fabricated by electrodeposition[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2018, 19(5): 399-408.

@article{title="Influence of annealing conditions on the properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films fabricated by electrodeposition",
author="Jing-yu Qu, Zheng-fei Guo, Kun Pan, Wei-wei Zhang, Xue-jin Wang",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Influence of annealing conditions on the properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films fabricated by electrodeposition
%A Jing-yu Qu
%A Zheng-fei Guo
%A Kun Pan
%A Wei-wei Zhang
%A Xue-jin Wang
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 19
%N 5
%P 399-408
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2018
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A1700261

T1 - Influence of annealing conditions on the properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films fabricated by electrodeposition
A1 - Jing-yu Qu
A1 - Zheng-fei Guo
A1 - Kun Pan
A1 - Wei-wei Zhang
A1 - Xue-jin Wang
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 19
IS - 5
SP - 399
EP - 408
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2018
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A1700261

cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) precursor films were deposited on Mo/glass by electrodeposition, and then annealed in Se vapor. The annealing temperature ranged from 450 °C to 580 °C, and two heating rates were selected. The results showed that the crystalline quality of the CIGS films and formation of the Cu-Se compound could be strongly influenced by the selenization temperature and heating rate. raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that when the selenization temperature was increased from 450 °C to 550 °C, the amount of binary CuSe phase decreased and the amount of Cu2Se increased. After annealing at 580 °C, a minimum amount of Cu2−xSe compounds was obtained and the degree of CIGS film crystallinity was higher than in other samples. The relationship between the properties of the film and the heating rate was studied. XRD and Raman spectra showed a decrease in the Cu2−xSe phase with increasing heating rate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and XRD showed a remarkable increase in the grain size of CIGS during rapid heating.


方法:1. 在水溶液中利用电沉积法制备出铜铟镓硒薄膜前驱体。2. 对前驱体进行退火处理,并针对不同的样品采用不同的退火温度和升温速率。3. 利用X射线衍射(XRD)、拉曼光谱(Raman)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、X射线荧光光谱(XRF)对薄膜进行表征,分析不同退火条件对结果的影响规律。
结论:1. 退火温度的影响:退火温度由450 °C升高到 580 °C时,得到的薄膜结晶性越来越好,晶粒边界越来越不明显,Cu/(In+Ga)的比例逐渐升高,说明高温下(≥450 °C)金属铟和镓较易挥发;实验中还发现Cu-Se化合物的总含量随退火温度的升高而降低。2. 升温速率的影响:退火速率越高,薄膜结晶性越好;快速升温时薄膜中Cu/(In+Ga)的比例略低于慢速升温时的样品,而Ga/(In+Ga)的比例几乎不变,说明快速升温可以减少In和Ga的挥发。


Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]Adurodija FO, Song J, Kim SD, et al., 1999. Growth of CuInSe2 thin films by high vapour Se treatment of co-sputtered Cu-In alloy in a graphite container. Thin Solid Films, 338(1-2):13-19.

[2]Ao JP, Yang L, Yan L, et al., 2009. Comparison of the compositions and structures of electrodeposited Cu-poor and Cu-rich Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 films before and after selenization. Acta Physica Sinica, 58(3):1870-1878.

[3]Basol BM, Kapur VK, 1990. Deposition of CuInSe2 films by a 2-stage process utilizing e-beam evaporation. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 37(2):418-421.

[4]Bhattacharya RN, Batchelor W, Granata JE, et al., 1998. CuIn1-xGaxSe2-based photovoltaic cells from electrodeposited and chemical bath deposited precursors. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 55(1-2):83-94.

[5]Birkmire RW, Eser E, 1997. Polycrystalline thin film solar cells: present status and future potential. Annual Review of Materials Science, 27(1):625-653.

[6]Chen CH, Hu HT, Lin FM, et al., 2017. Residual stress analysis and bow simulation of crystalline silicon solar cells. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A (Applied Physics & Engineering), 18(1):49-58.

[7]Chen DS, Yang J, Xu F, et al., 2013. Performance improvement of CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells after rapid thermal annealing. Chinese Physics B, 22(1):018801.

[8]Contreras MA, Romero MJ, Noufi R, 2006. Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 materials used in record performance solar cells. Thin Solid Films, 511-512:51-54.

[9]Delsol T, Samantilleke AP, Chaure NB, et al., 2004. Experimental study of graded bandgap Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 thin films grown on glass/molybdenum substrates by selenization and sulphidation. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 82(4):587-599.

[10]Fernandez AM, Bhattacharya RN, 2005. Electrodeposition of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 precursor films: optimization of film composition and morphology. Thin Solid Films, 474(1-2):10-13.

[11]Friedfeld R, Raffaelle RP, Mantovani JG, 1999. Electrodeposition of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin films. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 58(4):375-385.

[12]Hamakawa Y, 2012. Thin-film Solar Cells Next Generation Photovoltaics and Its Applications. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, p.167.

[13]Harati M, Jia J, Giffard K, et al., 2010. One-pot electrodeposition, characterization and photoactivity of stoichiometric copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin films for solar cells. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 12(46):15282-15290.

[14]Izquierdo-Roca V, Saucedo E, Ruiz CM, et al., 2009. Raman scattering and structural analysis of electrodeposited CuInSe2 and S-rich quaternary CuIn(S,Se)2 semiconductors for solar cells. Physica Status Solidi (a), 206(5):1001-1004.

[15]Jackson P, Hariskos D, Wuerz R, et al., 2014. Compositional investigation of potassium doped Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with efficiencies up to 20.8%. Physica Status Solidi (RRL)-Rapid Research Letters, 8(3):219-222.

[16]Jiang F, Feng J, 2006. Effect of temperature on selenization process of metallic Cu-In alloy precursors. Thin Solid Films, 515(4):1950-1955.

[17]Karg F, Probst V, Harms H, et al., 1993. Novel rapid-thermal-processing for CIS thin-film solar cells. Conference Record of the 23rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, p.441-446.

[18]Kemell M, Ritala M, Saloniemi H, et al., 2000. One-step electrodeposition of Cu2-xSe and CuInSe2 thin films by the induced co-deposition mechanism. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 147(3):1080-1087.

[19]Lakshmikumar ST, Rastogi AC, 1996. Phase evolution in low-pressure Se vapor selenization of evaporated Cu/In bilayer precursors. Journal of Applied Physics, 79(7):3585-3591.

[20]Lincot D, Guillemoles JF, Taunier S, et al., 2004. Chalcopyrite thin film solar cells by electrodeposition. Solar Energy, 77(6):725-737.

[21]Malaquias JC, Steichen M, Dale PJ, 2015. One-step electrodeposition of metal precursors from a deep eutectic solvent for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells. Electrochimica Acta, 151:150-156.

[22]Mise T, Nakada T, 2009. Microstructural properties of (In,Ga)2Se3 precursor layers for efficient cigs thin-film solar cells. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 93(6-7):1000-1003.

[23]Panicker MPR, Knaster M, Kroger FA, 1978. Cathodic deposition of CdTe from aqueous-electrolytes. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 125(4):566-572.

[24]Powalla M, Voorwinden G, Hariskos D, et al., 2009. Highly efficient CIS solar cells and modules made by the co-evaporation process. Thin Solid Films, 517(7):2111-2114.

[25]Rau U, Schock HW, 1999. Electronic properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 heterojunction solar cells–recent achievements, current understanding, and future challenges. Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, 69(2):131-147.

[26]Saji VS, Choi IH, Lee CW, 2011. Progress in electrodeposited absorber layer for CuIn(1-x)GaxSe2 (CIGS) solar cells. Solar Energy, 85(11):2666-2678.

[27]Sebastian PJ, Calixto ME, Bhattacharya RN, et al., 1999. CIS and CIGS based photovoltaic structures developed from electrodeposited precursors. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 59(1-2):125-135.

[28]Witte W, Kniese R, Eicke A, et al., 2006. Influence of the GA content on the Mo/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 interface formation. Conference Record of the IEEE 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, p.553-556.

[29]Witte W, Kniese R, Powalla M, 2008. Raman investigations of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films with various copper contents. Thin Solid Films, 517(2):867-869.

[30]Yamanaka S, Tanda M, Nakada N, et al., 1991. Study of CuInSe2 formation kinetics in the selenization process by Raman spectroscopy. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 30(Part 1, No. 3):442-446.

[31]Yeh MH, Ho SJ, Chen GH, et al., 2016. Toward low-cost large-area CIGS thin film III: effect of Se concentration on crystal growth and defect formation of sequentially electrodeposited CIGS thin films. Solar Energy, 132:547-557.

[32]Zhang HX, Hong RJ, 2016. CIGS absorbing layers prepared by RF magnetron sputtering from a single quaternary target. Ceramics International, 42(13):14543-14547.

[33]Zhang Z, Li J, Wang M, et al., 2010. Influence of annealing conditions on the structure and compositions of electrodeposited CuInSe2 films. Solid State Communications, 150(47-48):2346-2349.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2024 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE