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Received: 2010-03-18

Revision Accepted: 2010-05-13

Crosschecked: 2010-06-04

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Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2010 Vol.11 No.7 P.516-523

http://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B1000099


Arachnoid cell involvement in the mechanism of coagulation-initiated inflammation in the subarachnoid space after subarachnoid hemorrhage


Author(s):  Zhao-liang Xin, Xiao-kang Wu, Jian-rong Xu, Xi Li

Affiliation(s):  Department of Neurosurgery, Zhejiang Medical College, Hangzhou 310053, China, Department of Neurosurgery, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Shanghai 200072, China, Department of Neurosurgery, Yiwu Central Hospital, Yiwu 322000, China

Corresponding email(s):   wxk555@sohu.com

Key Words:  Arachnoid cells, Cell culture, Human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR), Soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2r)


Zhao-liang Xin, Xiao-kang Wu, Jian-rong Xu, Xi Li. Arachnoid cell involvement in the mechanism of coagulation-initiated inflammation in the subarachnoid space after subarachnoid hemorrhage[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2010, 11(7): 516-523.

@article{title="Arachnoid cell involvement in the mechanism of coagulation-initiated inflammation in the subarachnoid space after subarachnoid hemorrhage",
author="Zhao-liang Xin, Xiao-kang Wu, Jian-rong Xu, Xi Li",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
volume="11",
number="7",
pages="516-523",
year="2010",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",
doi="10.1631/jzus.B1000099"
}

%0 Journal Article
%T Arachnoid cell involvement in the mechanism of coagulation-initiated inflammation in the subarachnoid space after subarachnoid hemorrhage
%A Zhao-liang Xin
%A Xiao-kang Wu
%A Jian-rong Xu
%A Xi Li
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 11
%N 7
%P 516-523
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2010
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.B1000099

TY - JOUR
T1 - Arachnoid cell involvement in the mechanism of coagulation-initiated inflammation in the subarachnoid space after subarachnoid hemorrhage
A1 - Zhao-liang Xin
A1 - Xiao-kang Wu
A1 - Jian-rong Xu
A1 - Xi Li
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 11
IS - 7
SP - 516
EP - 523
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2010
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.B1000099


Abstract: 
Objective: To assess if arachnoid cells have the capability to present antigen and activate T-lymphocytes after stimulation by bloody cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and to illuminate the mechanism of coagulation-initiated inflammation in the subarachnoid space after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods: arachnoid cells were cultured, characterized, and examined by immunofluorescence for the basal expression of human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR). Expression of HLA-DR, after co-culturing arachnoid cells in vitro with bloody CSF, was investigated by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry (FCM). The variation of arachnoid cells’ ultrastructure was observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). arachnoid cells were co-cultured with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The content of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2r) in culture medium was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: (1) arachnoid cells were successfully cultured for many passages. The immunofluorescent staining was positive for HLA-DR in over 95% of the human arachnoid cells. The punctate HLA-DR was distributed in cytoplasm and not in the karyon. (2) After co-culturing arachnoid cells in vitro with bloody CSF, numerous particles with strong fluorescence appeared in the cytoplasm on Day 6. On Day 8, the quantity of particles and fluorescent intensity were maximal. FCM showed that the percentage of HLA-DR expressing cells was (2.5±0.4)% at the first 5 d, increasing to (60.8±3.6)% on Day 7. (3) After co-culturing arachnoid cells in vitro with bloody CSF, many lysosome and secondary lysosome particles were present in the cytoplasm. Hyperplasia of rough endoplasmic reticulum and enlarged cysts were observed, with numerous phagocytizing vesicles also observed at the edge of the arachnoid cells. (4) arachnoid cells stimulated by bloody CSF were co-cultured in vitro with PBMCs. The content of sIL-2r in the culture medium, having been maintained at around 1.30 ng/ml during the first 3 d, had increased by Day 4. The content of sIL-2r peaked 7.53 ng/ml on Day 7 and then reduced gradually. Conclusions: (1) Basic HLA-DR expression is present in arachnoid cells. (2) After stimulation by bloody CSF, arachnoid cells have the potential to serve as antigen presenting cells (APCs) and the ability to activate T-lymphocytes, indicating that arachnoid cells are involved in the mechanism of coagulation-initiated inflammation in the subarachnoid space after SAH.

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