Full Text:   <1353>

Summary:  <1162>

CLC number: Q74

On-line Access: 2020-09-07

Received: 2019-12-19

Revision Accepted: 2020-05-28

Crosschecked: 2020-08-11

Cited: 0

Clicked: 2112

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714


Xian-Feng Ding


-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2020 Vol.21 No.9 P.673-689


Roles of miRNA and lncRNA in triple-negative breast cancer

Author(s):  Juan Xu, Kang-Jing Wu, Qiao-Jun Jia, Xian-Feng Ding

Affiliation(s):  College of Life Sciences and Medicine, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China

Corresponding email(s):   bdd114@163.com

Key Words:  Biomarker, Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), MicroRNA, Regulation mechanism, Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC)

Share this article to: More |Next Article >>>

Juan Xu, Kang-Jing Wu, Qiao-Jun Jia, Xian-Feng Ding. Roles of miRNA and lncRNA in triple-negative breast cancer[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2020, 21(9): 673-689.

@article{title="Roles of miRNA and lncRNA in triple-negative breast cancer",
author="Juan Xu, Kang-Jing Wu, Qiao-Jun Jia, Xian-Feng Ding",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Roles of miRNA and lncRNA in triple-negative breast cancer
%A Juan Xu
%A Kang-Jing Wu
%A Qiao-Jun Jia
%A Xian-Feng Ding
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 21
%N 9
%P 673-689
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2020
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.B1900709

T1 - Roles of miRNA and lncRNA in triple-negative breast cancer
A1 - Juan Xu
A1 - Kang-Jing Wu
A1 - Qiao-Jun Jia
A1 - Xian-Feng Ding
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 21
IS - 9
SP - 673
EP - 689
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2020
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.B1900709

triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is currently the most malignant subtype of breast cancer without effective targeted therapies, which makes its pathogenesis an important target for research. A growing number of studies have shown that non-coding RNA (ncRNA), including microRNA (miRNA) and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), plays a significant role in tumorigenesis. This review summarizes the roles of miRNA and lncRNA in the progression, diagnosis, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy of TNBC. Aberrantly expressed miRNA and lncRNA are listed according to their roles. Further, it describes the multiple mechanisms that lncRNA shows for regulating gene expression in the nucleus and cytoplasm, and more importantly, describes lncRNA-regulated TNBC progression through complete combining with miRNA at the post-transcriptional level. Focusing on miRNA and lncRNA associated with TNBC can provide new insights for early diagnosis and treatment—they can be targeted in the future as a novel anticancer target of TNBC.


概要:三阴性乳腺癌(TNBC)作为乳腺癌中最恶性的亚型,具有异质性高、增殖能力高、转移性强等特点,且缺乏有效的靶向治疗,因而其发病机制成为研究的重点.越来越多的研究表明,小RNA (miRNA)和长链非编码RNA(lncRNA)在内的非编码RNA在肿瘤的发生和发展中起着重要的作用.本文总结归纳了近些年来与TNBC相关的miRNA和lncRNA,介绍了lncRNA调节基因表达的多种机制,概述了miRNA和lncRNA在TNBC进展、诊断以及新辅助化疗中的作用.本文探索miRNA和lncRNA与TNBC的关系,旨在为癌症的早期诊断和治疗提供新思路,使其成为治疗癌症的新靶点.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]Adams BD, Wali VB, Cheng CJ, et al., 2016. miR-34a silences c-SRC to attenuate tumor growth in triple-negative breast cancer. Cancer Res, 76(4):927-939.

[2]Amorim M, Salta S, Henrique R, et al., 2016. Decoding the usefulness of non-coding RNAs as breast cancer markers. J Transl Med, 14:265.

[3]Anfossi S, Fu X, Nagvekar R, et al., 2018. MicroRNAs, regulatory messengers inside and outside cancer cells. In: Mettinger KL, Rameshwar P, Kumar V (Eds.), Exosomes, Stem Cells and MicroRNA. Springer, Cham, p.87-108.

[4]Atkinson SR, Marguerat S, Bähler J, 2012. Exploring long non-coding RNAs through sequencing. Semin Cell Dev Biol, 23(2):200-205.

[5]Bai XD, Han GH, Liu Y, et al., 2018. MiRNA-20a-5p promotes the growth of triple-negative breast cancer cells through targeting RUNX3. Biomed Pharmacother, 103: 1482-1489.

[6]Bayraktar R, Pichler M, Kanlikilicer P, et al., 2017. MicroRNA 603 acts as a tumor suppressor and inhibits triple-negative breast cancer tumorigenesis by targeting elongation factor 2 kinase. Oncotarget, 8(7):11641-11658.


[8]Bhardwaj A, Singh H, Rajapakshe K, et al., 2017. Regulation of miRNA-29c and its downstream pathways in preneoplastic progression of triple-negative breast cancer. Oncotarget, 8(12):19645-19660.


[10]Biswas T, Efird JT, Prasad S, et al., 2017. The survival benefit of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and PCR among patients with advanced stage triple negative breast cancer. Oncotarget, 8(68):112712-112719.


[12]Boon RA, Jaé N, Holdt L, et al., 2016. Long noncoding RNAs: from clinical genetics to therapeutic targets? J Am Coll Cardiol, 67(10):1214-1226.

[13]Browne G, Dragon JA, Hong DL, et al., 2016. MicroRNA-378-mediated suppression of Runx1 alleviates the aggressive phenotype of triple-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Tumour Biol, 37(7):8825-8839.

[14]Catalanotto C, Cogoni C, Zardo G, 2016. MicroRNA in control of gene expression: an overview of nuclear functions. Int J Mol Sci, 17(10):1712.

[15]Chadwick BP, Scott KC, 2013. Molecular versatility: the many faces and functions of noncoding RNA. Chromosome Res, 21(6-7):555-559.

[16]Chen H, Pan H, Qian Y, et al., 2018. MiR-25-3p promotes the proliferation of triple negative breast cancer by targeting BTG2. Mol Cancer, 17:4.

[17]Chen J, Wang BC, Tang JH, 2012. Clinical significance of microRNA-155 expression in human breast cancer. J Surg Oncol, 106(3):260-266.

[18]Chen JW, Shin VY, Siu MT, et al., 2016. miR-199a-5p confers tumor-suppressive role in triple-negative breast cancer. BMC Cancer, 16:887.

[19]Chen QN, Wei CC, Wang ZX, et al., 2017. Long non-coding RNAs in anti-cancer drug resistance. Oncotarget, 8(1):1925-1936.


[21]Chen XW, Zhao M, Huang J, et al., 2018. microRNA-130a suppresses breast cancer cell migration and invasion by targeting FOSL1 and upregulating ZO-1. J Cell Biochem, 119(6):4945-4956.

[22]Collignon J, Lousberg L, Schroeder H, et al., 2016. Triple-negative breast cancer: treatment challenges and solutions. Breast Cancer (Dove Med Press), 8:93-107.

[23]Costa FF, 2005. Non-coding RNAs: new players in eukaryotic biology. Gene, 357(2):83-94.

[24]De S, Das S, Mukherjee S, et al., 2017. Establishment of twist-1 and TGFBR2 as direct targets of microRNA-20a in mesenchymal to epithelial transition of breast cancer cell-line MDA-MB-231. Exp Cell Res, 361(1):85-92.

[25]Delás MJ, Hannon GJ, 2017. lncRNAs in development and disease: from functions to mechanisms. Open Biol, 7(7):170121.

[26]Deng H, Zhang J, Shi JJ, et al., 2016. Role of long non-coding RNA in tumor drug resistance. Tumor Biol, 37(9):11623-11631.

[27]Eades G, Wolfson B, Zhang YS, et al., 2015. lincRNA-RoR and miR-145 regulate invasion in triple-negative breast cancer via targeting ARF6. Mol Cancer Res, 13(2):330-338.

[28]Eades GL, Zhou Q, 2014. Abstract 1463: long non-coding RNA RoR and microRNA-145 regulate tumor cell invasion in triple-negative breast cancer via targeting of ADP-ribosylation factor 6. Cancer Res, 74(S19):1463.

[29]Evans JR, Feng FY, Chinnaiyan AM, 2016. The bright side of dark matter: lncRNAs in cancer. J Clin Invest, 126(8):2775-2782.

[30]Fang H, Xie JP, Zhang M, et al., 2017. miRNA-21 promotes proliferation and invasion of triple-negative breast cancer cells through targeting PTEN. Am J Transl Res, 9(3):953-961.

[31]Ferlay J, Héry C, Autier P, et al., 2010. Global burden of breast cancer. In: Li C (Ed.), Breast Cancer Epidemiology. Springer, New York, p.1-19.

[32]Fu PF, Zheng X, Fan X, et al., 2019. Role of cytoplasmic lncRNAs in regulating cancer signaling pathways. J Zhejiang Univ-Sci B (Biomed & Biotechnol), 20(1):1-8.

[33]Gebert LFR, MacRae IJ, 2019. Regulation of microRNA function in animals. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 20(1):21-37.

[34]Gilam A, Conde J, Weissglas-Volkov D, et al., 2016. Local microRNA delivery targets Palladin and prevents metastatic breast cancer. Nat Commun, 7:12868.

[35]Gu J, Wang YP, Wang XD, et al., 2018. Downregulation of lncRNA GAS5 confers tamoxifen resistance by activating miR-222 in breast cancer. Cancer Lett, 434:1-10.

[36]Gülben K, Berberoglu U, Kinaş V, et al., 2014. Breast cancer subtypes can be a predictor of pathologic complete response and survival in the neoadjuvant setting for T4 noninflammatory breast cancer. Acta Chir Belg, 114(3):153-159.

[37]Gupta RA, Shah N, Wang KC, et al., 2010. Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR reprograms chromatin state to promote cancer metastasis. Nature, 464(7291):1071-1076.

[38]Han JG, Han BJ, Wu XY, et al., 2018. Knockdown of lncRNA H19 restores chemo-sensitivity in paclitaxel-resistant triple-negative breast cancer through triggering apoptosis and regulating Akt signaling pathway. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 359:55-61.

[39]Han JJ, Yu JJ, Dai YN, et al., 2018. Overexpression of miR-361-5p in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) inhibits migration and invasion by targeting RQCD1 and inhibiting the EGFR/PI3K/Akt pathway. Bosn J Basic Med Sci, 19(1):52-59.


[41]Harrow J, Frankish A, Gonzalez JM, et al., 2012. GENCODE: the reference human genome annotation for the encode project. Genome Res, 22(9):1760-1774.

[42]Hata A, Kashima R, 2016. Dysregulation of microRNA biogenesis machinery in cancer. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol, 51(3):121-134.

[43]Hiatt RA, Brody JG, 2018. Environmental determinants of breast cancer. Annu Rev Public Health, 39:113-133.

[44]Hong LQ, Pan F, Jiang HF, et al., 2016. MiR-125b inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition of triple-negative breast cancer by targeting MAP2K7. Onco Targets Ther, 9: 2639-2648.

[45]Hu JH, Xu J, Wu YQ, et al., 2015. Identification of microRNA-93 as a functional dysregulated miRNA in triple-negative breast cancer. Tumour Biol, 36(1):251-258.

[46]Huang J, Zhou N, Watabe K, et al., 2014. Long non-coding RNA UCA1 promotes breast tumor growth by suppression of p27 (Kip1). Cell Death Dis, 5:e1008.

[47]Huarte M, 2015. The emerging role of lncRNAs in cancer. Nat Med, 21(11):1253-1261.

[48]Jia ZM, Liu Y, Gao Q, et al., 2016. miR-490-3p inhibits the growth and invasiveness in triple-negative breast cancer by repressing the expression of TNKS2. Gene, 593(1):41-47.

[49]Karagoz K, Sinha R, Arga KY, 2015. Triple negative breast cancer: a multi-omics network discovery strategy for candidate targets and driving pathways. OMICS, 19(2):115-130.

[50]Khaled N, Bidet Y, 2019. New insights into the implication of epigenetic alterations in the EMT of triple negative breast cancer. Cancers (Basel), 11(4):559.

[51]Kim SY, Kawaguchi T, Yan L, et al., 2017. Clinical relevance of microRNA expressions in breast cancer validated using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Ann Surg Oncol, 24(10):2943-2949.

[52]Kolesnikov NN, Veryaskina YA, Titov SE, et al., 2019. Expression of microRNAs in molecular genetic breast cancer subtypes. Cancer Treat Res Commun, 20:100026.

[53]Kunej T, Obsteter J, Pogacar Z, et al., 2014. The decalog of long non-coding RNA involvement in cancer diagnosis and monitoring. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci, 51(6):344-357.

[54]Lee J, Jung JH, Chae YS, et al., 2016. Long noncoding RNA snaR regulates proliferation, migration and invasion of triple-negative breast cancer cells. Anticancer Res, 36(12):6289-6295.


[56]Lehmann BD, Bauer JA, Chen X, et al., 2011. Identification of human triple-negative breast cancer subtypes and preclinical models for selection of targeted therapies. J Clin Invest, 121(7):2750-2767.

[57]Li HY, Liang JL, Kuo YL, et al., 2017. miR-105/93-3p promotes chemoresistance and circulating miR-105/93-3p acts as a diagnostic biomarker for triple negative breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res, 19:133.

[58]Li J, Chen CC, Ma XC, et al., 2016. Long noncoding RNA NRON contributes to HIV-1 latency by specifically inducing TAT protein degradation. Nat Commun, 7:11730.

[59]Li J, Cui ZG, Li H, et al., 2018. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of long noncoding RNA MALAT1 in human cancers: a review and meta-analysis. Cancer Cell Int, 18:109.

[60]Li N, Deng YJ, Zhou LH, et al., 2019. Global burden of breast cancer and attributable risk factors in 195 countries and territories, from 1990 to 2017: results from the global burden of disease study 2017. J Hematol Oncol, 12:140.

[61]Li SQ, Zhou J, Wang ZX, et al., 2018. Long noncoding RNA GAS5 suppresses triple negative breast cancer progression through inhibition of proliferation and invasion by competitively binding miR-196a-5p. Biomed Pharmacother, 104:451-457.

[62]Li WT, Liu CL, Zhao CL, et al., 2016. Downregulation of β3 integrin by miR-30a-5p modulates cell adhesion and invasion by interrupting Erk/Ets-1 network in triple-negative breast cancer. Int J Mol Sci, 48(3):1155-1164.

[63]Li XH, Hou LL, Yin L, et al., 2020. LncRNA XIST interacts with miR-454 to inhibit cells proliferation, epithelial mesenchymal transition and induces apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer. J Biosci, 45:45.

[64]Li XN, Wu YM, Liu AH, et al., 2016. Long non-coding RNA UCA1 enhances tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells through a miR-18a-HIF1α feedback regulatory loop. Tumor Biol, 37(11):14733-14743.

[65]Li Z, Li Y, Li Y, et al., 2017. Long non-coding RNA H19 promotes the proliferation and invasion of breast cancer through upregulating DNMT1 expression by sponging miR-152. J Biochem Mol Toxicol, 31(9):e21933.

[66]Li ZS, Meng QY, Pan AF, et al., 2017. MicroRNA-455-3p promotes invasion and migration in triple negative breast cancer by targeting tumor suppressor EI24. Oncotarget, 8(12):19455-19466.


[68]Li ZX, Qian J, Li J, et al., 2019. Knockdown of lncRNA-HOTAIR downregulates the drug-resistance of breast cancer cells to doxorubicin via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Exp Ther Med, 18(1):435-442.

[69]Liang YJ, Hu J, Li JT, et al., 2015. Epigenetic activation of TWIST1 by MTDH promotes cancer stem-like cell traits in breast cancer. Cancer Res, 75(17):3672-3680.

[70]Liedtke C, Mazouni C, Hess K, et al., 2008. Response to neoadjuvant therapy and long-term survival in patients with triple-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol, 26(8):1275-1281.

[71]Lin AF, Li CL, Xing Z, et al., 2016. The LINK-A lncRNA activates normoxic HIF1α signalling in triple-negative breast cancer. Nat Cell Biol, 18(2):213-224.

[72]Liu AN, Qu HJ, Gong WJ, et al., 2019. LncRNA AWPPH and miRNA-21 regulates cancer cell proliferation and chemosensitivity in triple-negative breast cancer by interacting with each other. J Cell Biochem, 120(9):14860-14866.

[73]Liu HY, Wang G, Yang LL, et al., 2016. Knockdown of long non-coding RNA UCA1 increases the tamoxifen sensitivity of breast cancer cells through inhibition of Wnt/ β-catenin pathway. PLoS ONE, 11(12):e0168406.

[74]Liu L, He J, Wei X, et al., 2017a. MicroRNA-20a-mediated loss of autophagy contributes to breast tumorigenesis by promoting genomic damage and instability. Oncogene, 36(42):5874-5884.

[75]Liu L, Yu DH, Shi H, et al., 2017b. Reduced lncRNA Aim enhances the malignant invasion of triple-negative breast cancer cells mainly by activating Wnt/β-catenin/mTOR/ PI3K signaling. Pharmazie, 72(10):599-603.

[76]Liu M, Xing LQ, Liu YJ, 2017. A three-long noncoding RNA signature as a diagnostic biomarker for differentiating between triple-negative and non-triple-negative breast cancers. Medicine (Baltimore), 96(9):e6222.

[77]Liu XP, Tang HL, Chen JP, et al., 2015. MicroRNA-101 inhibits cell progression and increases paclitaxel sensitivity by suppressing MCL-1 expression in human triple-negative breast cancer. Oncotarget, 6(24):20070-20083.


[79]Luan T, Zhang XM, Wang SY, et al., 2017. Long non-coding RNA MIAT promotes breast cancer progression and functions as ceRNA to regulate DUSP7 expression by sponging miR-155-5p. Oncotarget, 8(44):76153-76164.


[81]Luo LY, Tang HL, Ling L, et al., 2018. LINC01638 lncRNA activates MTDH-Twist1 signaling by preventing SPOP-mediated c-Myc degradation in triple-negative breast cancer. Oncogene, 37(47):6166-6179.

[82]Luo N, Zhang KJ, Li X, et al., 2020. ZEB1 induced-upregulation of long noncoding RNA ZEB1-AS1 facilitates the progression of triple negative breast cancer by binding with ELAVL1 to maintain the stability of ZEB1 mRNA. J Cell Biochem, online.

[83]Lv ZD, Kong B, Liu XP, et al., 2016. miR-655 suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by targeting Prrx1 in triple-negative breast cancer. J Cell Mol Med, 20(5):864-873.

[84]Ma DC, Chen C, Wu J, et al., 2019. Up-regulated lncRNA AFAP1-AS1 indicates a poor prognosis and promotes carcinogenesis of breast cancer. Breast Cancer, 26(1):74-83.

[85]Matamala N, Vargas MT, González-Cámpora R, et al., 2015. Tumor microRNA expression profiling identifies circulating microRNAs for early breast cancer detection. Clin Chem, 61(8):1098-1106.

[86]Mathe A, Scott RJ, Avery-Kiejda K, 2015. miRNAs and other epigenetic changes as biomarkers in triple negative breast cancer. Int J Mol Sci, 16(12):28347-28376.

[87]Mattick JS, 2011. The central role of RNA in human development and cognition. FEBS Lett, 585(11):1600-1616.

[88]Mattick JS, Makunin IV, 2006. Non-coding RNA. Hum Mol Genet, 15(1):R17-R29.

[89]Mattick JS, Amaral PP, Dinger ME, et al., 2009. RNA regulation of epigenetic processes. BioEssays, 31(1):51-59.

[90]Mayer IA, Abramson VG, Lehmann BD, et al., 2014. New strategies for triple-negative breast cancer—deciphering the heterogeneity. Clin Cancer Res, 20(4):782-790.

[91]Miao YF, Fan RG, Chen LG, et al., 2016. Clinical significance of long non-coding RNA MALAT1 expression in tissue and serum of breast cancer. Ann Clin Lab Sci, 46(4):418-424.

[92]Mou EX, Wang H, 2019. LncRNA LUCAT1 facilitates tumorigenesis and metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer through modulating miR-5702. Biosci Rep, 39(9):BSR20190489.

[93]Niu LM, Fan QX, Yan M, et al., 2019. LncRNA NRON down-regulates lncRNA snaR and inhibits cancer cell proliferation in TNBC. Biosci Rep, 39(5):BSR20190468.

[94]O'Brien K, Lowry MC, Corcoran C, et al., 2015. MiR-134 in extracellular vesicles reduces triple-negative breast cancer aggression and increases drug sensitivity. Oncotarget, 6(32):32774-32789.


[96]Onyeagucha B, Rajamanickam S, Subbarayalu P, et al., 2016. Abstract P2-03-04: down-regulation of Bcl2-related ovarian killer (BOK) by miR-296-5p protects breast cancer cells from paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Cancer Res, 76(S4):P2-03-04.

[97]Paraskevopoulou MD, Hatzigeorgiou AG, 2016. Analyzing miRNA–lncRNA interactions. In: Feng Y, Zhang L (Eds.), Long Non-Coding RNAs: Methods and Protocols. Humana Press, New York, p.271-286.

[98]Phan B, Majid S, Ursu S, et al., 2016. Tumor suppressor role of microRNA-1296 in triple-negative breast cancer. Oncotarget, 7(15):19519-19530.


[100]Piasecka D, Braun M, Kordek R, et al., 2018. MicroRNAs in regulation of triple-negative breast cancer progression. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 144(8):1401-1411.

[101]Prensner JR, Chinnaiyan AM, 2011. The emergence of lncRNAs in cancer biology. Cancer Discov, 1(5):391-407.

[102]Razaviyan J, Hadavi R, Tavakoli R, et al., 2018. Expression of miRNAs targeting mTOR and S6K1 genes of mTOR signaling pathway including miR-96, miR-557, and miR-3182 in triple-negative breast cancer. Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 186(4):1074-1089.

[103]Ren Y, Han XD, Yu K, et al., 2014. microRNA-200c downregulates XIAP expression to suppress proliferation and promote apoptosis of triple-negative breast cancer cells. Mol Med Rep, 10(1):315-321.

[104]Reshetnikova G, Troyanovsky S, Rimm DL, 2007. Definition of a direct extracellular interaction between Met and E-cadherin. Cell Biol Int, 31(4):366-373.

[105]Rhodes LV, Martin EC, Segar HC, et al., 2015. Dual regulation by microRNA-200b-3p and microRNA-200b-5p in the inhibition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in triple-negative breast cancer. Oncotarget, 6(18):16638-16652.


[107]Romero-Cordoba SL, Rodriguez-Cuevas S, Rebollar-Vega R, et al., 2016. A microRNA signature identifies subtypes of triple-negative breast cancer and reveals miR-342-3p as regulator of a lactate metabolic pathway through silencing monocarboxylate transporter 1. Cancer Res, 76(6):A47.

[108]Sha S, Yuan DY, Liu YJ, et al., 2017. Targeting long non-coding RNA DANCR inhibits triple negative breast cancer progression. Biol Open, 6(9):1310-1316.

[109]Shen X, Zhong JX, Yu P, et al., 2019. YY1-regulated LINC00152 promotes triple negative breast cancer progression by affecting on stability of PTEN protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 509(2):448-454.

[110]Shin VY, Siu MT, Ho JC, et al., 2014. Abstract 531: miR-199a-5p is a biomarker for and regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in triple-negative breast cancer patients. Cancer Res, 74(S19):531.

[111]Shin VY, Chen JW, Cheuk IWY, et al., 2019. Long non-coding RNA NEAT1 confers oncogenic role in triple-negative breast cancer through modulating chemoresistance and cancer stemness. Cell Death Dis, 10(4):270.

[112]Shukla GC, Singh J, Barik S, 2011. MicroRNAs: processing, maturation, target recognition and regulatory functions. Mol Cell Pharmacol, 3(3):83-92.

[113]Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A, 2019. Cancer statistics, 2019. CA Cancer J Clin, 69(1):7-34.

[114]Smith MA, Mattick JS, 2017. Structural and functional annotation of long noncoding RNAs. In: Keith JM (Ed.), Bioinformatics: Volume II: Structure, Function, and Applications. Humana Press, New York, p.65-85.

[115]Song GQ, Zhao Y, 2015. MicroRNA-211, a direct negative regulator of CDC25B expression, inhibits triple-negative breast cancer cells’ growth and migration. Tumor Biol, 36(7):5001-5009.

[116]Song X, Liu ZY, Yu ZY, 2019. LncRNA NEF is downregulated in triple negative breast cancer and correlated with poor prognosis. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai), 51(4):386-392.

[117]Sørlie T, 2004. Molecular portraits of breast cancer: tumour subtypes as distinct disease entities. Eur J Cancer, 40(18):2667-2675.

[118]St. Laurent G, Wahlestedt C, Kapranov P, 2015. The landscape of long noncoding RNA classification. Trends Genet, 31(5):239-251.

[119]Sun WL, Yang YB, Xu CJ, et al., 2017. Regulatory mechanisms of long noncoding RNAs on gene expression in cancers. Cancer Genet, 216-217:105-110.

[120]Sun X, Li YQ, Zheng MZ, et al., 2016. MicroRNA-223 increases the sensitivity of triple-negative breast cancer stem cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by targeting HAX-1. PLoS ONE, 11(9):e0162754.

[121]Taft RJ, Pang KC, Mercer TR, et al., 2010. Non-coding RNAs: regulators of disease. J Pathol, 220(2):126-139.

[122]Tian T, Wang M, Lin S, et al., 2018. The impact of lncRNA dysregulation on clinicopathology and survival of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids, 12:359-369.

[123]Tse JC, Kalluri R, 2007. Mechanisms of metastasis: epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and contribution of tumor microenvironment. J Cell Biochem, 101(4):816-829.

[124]Tsouko E, Wang J, Frigo DE, et al., 2015. miR-200a inhibits migration of triple-negative breast cancer cells through direct repression of the EPHA2 oncogene. Carcinogenesis, 36(9):1051-1060.

[125]Verma A, Kaur J, Mehta K, 2019. Molecular oncology update: breast cancer gene expression profiling. Asian J Oncol, 1(2):65-72.

[126]Wang B, Zhang QY, 2012. The expression and clinical significance of circulating microRNA-21 in serum of five solid tumors. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 138(10):1659-1666.

[127]Wang C, Zheng XQ, Shen CY, et al., 2012. MicroRNA-203 suppresses cell proliferation and migration by targeting BIRC5 and LASP1 in human triple-negative breast cancer cells. J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 31:58.

[128]Wang H, Tan ZQ, Hu H, et al., 2019. microRNA-21 promotes breast cancer proliferation and metastasis by targeting LZTFL1. BMC Cancer, 19:738.

[129]Wang J, Tsouko E, Jonsson P, et al., 2014. miR-206 inhibits cell migration through direct targeting of the actin-binding protein Coronin 1C in triple-negative breast cancer. Mol Oncol, 8(8):1690-1702.

[130]Wang L, Liu DQ, Wu XR, et al., 2018. Long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) RMST in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC):expression analysis and biological roles research. J Cell Physiol, 233(10):6603-6612.

[131]Wang LH, Luan T, Zhou SH, et al., 2019. LncRNA HCP5 promotes triple negative breast cancer progression as a ceRNA to regulate BIRC3 by sponging miR-219a-5p. Cancer Med, 8(9):4389-4403.

[132]Wang N, Hou MS, Zhan Y, et al., 2019a. LncRNA PTCSC3 inhibits triple-negative breast cancer cell proliferation by downregulating lncRNA H19. J Cell Biochem, 120(9):15083-15088.

[133]Wang N, Zhong CC, Fu MT, et al., 2019b. Long non-coding RNA HULC promotes the development of breast cancer through regulating LYPD1 expression by sponging miR-6754-5p. Onco Targets Ther, 12:10671-10679.

[134]Wang OC, Yang F, Liu YH, et al., 2017. C-MYC-induced upregulation of lncRNA SNHG12 regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration in triple-negative breast cancer. Am J Transl Res, 9(2):533-545.

[135]Wang PS, Chou CH, Lin CH, et al., 2018. A novel long non-coding RNA linc-ZNF469-3 promotes lung metastasis through miR-574-5p-ZEB1 axis in triple negative breast cancer. Oncogene, 37(34):4662-4678.

[136]Wang SW, Ke H, Zhang HL, et al., 2018. LncRNA MIR100HG promotes cell proliferation in triple-negative breast cancer through triplex formation with p27 loci. Cell Death Dis, 9(8):805.

[137]Wang XL, Chen T, Zhang Y, et al., 2019. Long noncoding RNA Linc00339 promotes triple-negative breast cancer progression through miR-377-3p/HOXC6 signaling pathway. J Cell Physiol, 234(8):13303-13317.

[138]Wang XS, Zhang Z, Wang HC, et al., 2006. Rapid identification of UCA1 as a very sensitive and specific unique marker for human bladder carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res, 12(16):4851-4858.

[139]Wang YX, Zhang ZY, Wang JQ, 2018. MicroRNA-384 inhibits the progression of breast cancer by targeting ACVR1. Oncol Rep, 39(6):2563-2574.

[140]Winton MJ, Igaz LM, Wong MM, et al., 2008. Disturbance of nuclear and cytoplasmic TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) induces disease-like redistribution, sequestration, and aggregate formation. J Biol Chem, 283(19):13302-13309.

[141]Wu CH, Luo J, 2016. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 (UCA1) enhances tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells via inhibiting mtor signaling pathway. Med Sci Monit, 22:3860-3867.


[143]Wu JL, Shuang ZY, Zhao JF, et al., 2018. Linc00152 promotes tumorigenesis by regulating DNMTs in triple-negative breast cancer. Biomed Pharmacother, 97:1275-1281.

[144]Xiong HP, Yan T, Zhang WJ, et al., 2018. miR-613 inhibits cell migration and invasion by downregulating Daam1 in triple-negative breast cancer. Cell Signal, 44:33-42.

[145]Xu ST, Xu JH, Zheng ZR, et al., 2017. Long non-coding RNA ANRIL promotes carcinogenesis via sponging miR-199a in triple-negative breast cancer. Biomed Pharmacother, 96:14-21.

[146]Yang CF, Humphries B, Li YF, et al., 2017. Abstract 1468: miR-200b targets ARHGAP18 and suppresses triple negative breast cancer metastasis. Cancer Res, 77(S13):1468.

[147]Yang F, Liu YH, Dong SY, et al., 2016a. Co-expression networks revealed potential core lncRNAs in the triple-negative breast cancer. Gene, 591(2):471-477.

[148]Yang F, Dong SY, Lv L, et al., 2016b. Long non-coding RNA AFAP1-AS1 was up-regulated in triple-negative breast cancer and regulated proliferation and invasion. Int J Clin Exp Pathol, 9(6):6378-6384.

[149]Yang J, Meng XL, Yu Y, et al., 2019. LncRNA POU3F3 promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of cancer cells in triple-negative breast cancer by inactivating caspase 9. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 83(6):1117-1123.

[150]Yoon MK, Mitrea DM, Ou L, et al., 2012. Cell cycle regulation by the intrinsically disordered proteins p21 and p27. Biochem Soc Trans, 40(5):981-988.

[151]Youness RA, Hafez HM, Khallaf E, et al., 2019. The long noncoding RNA sONE represses triple-negative breast cancer aggressiveness through inducing the expression of miR-34a, miR-15a, miR-16, and let-7a. J Cell Physiol, 234(11):20286-20297.

[152]Yu FS, Wang L, Zhang BW, 2019. Long non-coding RNA DRHC inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells in triple negative breast cancer by downregulating long non-coding RNA HOTAIR. Oncol Lett, 18(4):3817-3822.

[153]Zhang H, Li BW, Zhao HB, et al., 2015. The expression and clinical significance of serum miR-205 for breast cancer and its role in detection of human cancers. Int J Clin Exp Med, 8(2):3034-3043.

[154]Zhang KJ, Luo ZL, Zhang Y, et al., 2016. Circulating lncRNA H19 in plasma as a novel biomarker for breast cancer. Cancer Biomark, 17(2):187-194.

[155]Zhang KM, Liu P, Tang HL, et al., 2018. AFAP1-AS1 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumorigenesis through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in triple-negative breast cancer. Front Pharmacol, 9:1248.

[156]Zhang R, Xia LQ, Lu WW, et al., 2016. LncRNAs and cancer. Oncol Lett, 12(2):1233-1239.

[157]Zhang YY, He Q, Hu ZY, et al., 2016. Long noncoding RNA LINP1 regulates repair of DNA double-strand breaks in triple-negative breast cancer. Nat Struct Mol Biol, 23(6):522-530.

[158]Zhao D, Besser AH, Wander SA, et al., 2015. Cytoplasmic p27 promotes epithelial–mesenchymal transition and tumor metastasis via STAT3-mediated TWIST1 upregulation. Oncogene, 34(43):5447-5459.

[159]Zhao M, Ding XF, Shen JY, et al., 2017. Use of liposomal doxorubicin for adjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer in clinical practice. J Zhejiang Univ-Sci B (Biomed & Biotechnol), 18(1):15-26.

[160]Zhao ZT, Li L, Du PN, et al., 2019. Transcriptional downregulation of miR-4306 serves as a new therapeutic target for triple negative breast cancer. Theranostics, 9(5):1401-1416.

[161]Zheng LH, Zhang YH, Fu YJ, et al., 2019. Long non-coding RNA MALAT1 regulates BLCAP mRNA expression through binding to miR-339-5p and promotes poor prognosis in breast cancer. Biosci Rep, 39(2):BSR20181284.

[162]Zuo YG, Li Y, Zhou ZY, et al., 2017. Long non-coding RNA MALAT1 promotes proliferation and invasion via targeting miR-129-5p in triple-negative breast cancer. Biomed Pharmacother, 95:922-928.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2022 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE