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Bio-Design and Manufacturing  2024 Vol.7 No.1 P.57-73

http://doi.org/10.1007/s42242-023-00249-z


Constructing a biofunctionalized 3D-printed gelatin/sodium alginate/chitosan tri-polymer complex scaffold with improvised biological and mechanical properties for bone-tissue engineering


Author(s):  Amit Kumar Singh, Krishna Pramanik & Amit Biswas

Affiliation(s):  Centre of Excellence in Tissue Engineering, Department of Biotechnology and Medical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769008, India

Corresponding email(s):   kpr@nitrkl.ac.in

Key Words:  Scaffold, Biomaterial, Sodium alginate, Chitosan, Gelatin, 3D printing, Tissue engineering


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Amit Kumar Singh, Krishna Pramanik & Amit Biswas . Constructing a biofunctionalized 3D-printed gelatin/sodium alginate/chitosan tri-polymer complex scaffold with improvised biological and mechanical properties for bone-tissue engineering[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science D, 2024, 7(1): 57-73.

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Abstract: 
sodium alginate (SA)/chitosan (CH) polyelectrolyte scaffold is a suitable substrate for tissue-engineering application. The present study deals with further improvement in the tensile strength and biological properties of this type of scaffold to make it a potential template for bone-tissue regeneration. We experimented with adding 0%–15% (volume fraction) gelatin (GE), a protein-based biopolymer known to promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. The resulting tri-polymer complex was used as bioink to fabricate SA/CH/GE matrices by three-dimensional (3D) printing. Morphological studies using scanning electron microscopy revealed the microfibrous porous architecture of all the structures, which had a pore size range of 383–419 μm. X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses revealed the amorphous nature of the scaffold and the strong electrostatic interactions among the functional groups of the polymers, thereby forming polyelectrolyte complexes which were found to improve mechanical properties and structural stability. The scaffolds exhibited a desirable degradation rate, controlled swelling, and hydrophilic characteristics which are favorable for bone-tissue engineering. The tensile strength improved from (386±15) to (693±15) kPa due to the increased stiffness of SA/CH scaffolds upon addition of gelatin. The enhanced protein adsorption and in vitro bioactivity (forming an apatite layer) confirmed the ability of the SA/CH/GE scaffold to offer higher cellular adhesion and a bone-like environment to cells during the process of tissue regeneration. In vitro biological evaluation including the MTT assay, confocal microscopy analysis, and alizarin red S assay showed a significant increase in cell attachment, cell viability, and cell proliferation, which further improved biomineralization over the scaffold surface. In addition, SA/CH containing 15% gelatin designated as SA/CH/GE15 showed superior performance to the other fabricated 3D structures, demonstrating its potential for use in bone-tissue engineering

印度Pramanik等 | 用于骨组织工程修复的具有改进生物学和力学性能的生物功能化三维打印明胶海藻酸钠壳聚糖三聚物复合支架

本研究论文聚焦用于骨组织工程修复的具有改进生物学和力学性能的生物功能化三维打印明胶/海藻酸钠/壳聚糖三聚物复合支架。海藻酸钠(SA)/壳聚糖(CH)聚电解质支架是组织工程应用的合适基质。本研究旨在进一步改善该类型支架的拉伸强度和生物特性,使其成为骨组织再生的潜在模板。作者实验添加了0% -15%(体积分数)明胶(GE),这是一种以蛋白质为基础的生物聚合物,已知具有促进细胞黏附、增殖和分化的作用。得到的三元聚合物复合体被用作生物墨水,通过三维(3D)打印制造SA / CH / GE基质。扫描电子显微镜的形态学研究显示了所有结构的微纤维多孔结构,其孔径范围为383-419微米。X射线衍射和傅立叶变换红外光谱分析显示了支架的非晶性以及聚合物功能团之间的强电荷作用,从而形成改善机械性能和结构稳定性的聚电解质复合物。支架表现出合适的降解速率、控制溶胀和亲水特性,有利于骨组织工程。由于增加了明胶,SA / CH支架的刚度提高,拉伸强度从(386±15)kPa提高到(693±15)kPa。增强的蛋白吸附和体外生物活性(形成磷酸钙层)确认了SA / CH / GE支架在组织再生过程中提供更高的细胞黏附和骨样环境的能力。体外生物评估包括MTT法、共聚焦显微镜分析和茜素红S酸化验显示了细胞黏附、细胞存活和细胞增殖的显著增加,进一步提高了支架表面的生物矿化。此外,含有15%明胶的SA / CH / GE被标记为SA / CH / GE15,表现出优异的性能,证明了其在骨组织工程中的潜力。

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