Full Text:   <3015>

CLC number: TS255.1

On-line Access: 

Received: 2009-07-02

Revision Accepted: 2009-10-19

Crosschecked: 2009-11-13

Cited: 26

Clicked: 6246

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2009 Vol.10 No.12 P.912-919


Enhancing polyphenol extraction from unripe apples by carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes

Author(s):  Hu-zhe ZHENG, In-Wook HWANG, Shin-Kyo CHUNG

Affiliation(s):  Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea

Corresponding email(s):   kchung@mail.knu.ac.kr

Key Words:  Carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes, Unripe apples, Polyphenol extraction, Caffeic acid

Hu-zhe ZHENG, In-Wook HWANG, Shin-Kyo CHUNG. Enhancing polyphenol extraction from unripe apples by carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2009, 10(12): 912-919.

@article{title="Enhancing polyphenol extraction from unripe apples by carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes",
author="Hu-zhe ZHENG, In-Wook HWANG, Shin-Kyo CHUNG",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Enhancing polyphenol extraction from unripe apples by carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes
%A Hu-zhe ZHENG
%A In-Wook HWANG
%A Shin-Kyo CHUNG
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 10
%N 12
%P 912-919
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2009
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.B0920186

T1 - Enhancing polyphenol extraction from unripe apples by carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes
A1 - Hu-zhe ZHENG
A1 - In-Wook HWANG
A1 - Shin-Kyo CHUNG
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 10
IS - 12
SP - 912
EP - 919
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2009
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.B0920186

The effects of process variables such as enzyme types, enzyme ratio, reaction temperature, pH, time, and ethanol concentration on the extraction of unripe apple polyphenol were investigated. The results indicated that Viscozyme L had the strongest effect on polyphenols extraction and was selected to study the polyphenol composition. The ratio of enzyme (Viscozyme L) to substrate (2 fungal beta-glucanase units (FBG)) at 0.02, reaction at pH 3.7, 50 °C for 12 h, and ethanol concentration of 70% were chosen as the most favorable extraction condition. Total phenolic content (TPC), reducing sugar content (RSC), and extraction yield increased by about 3, 1.5, and 2 times, respectively, compared with control. The contents of p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid increased to 8, 4, and 32 times, respectively. The enzyme-aided polyphenol extraction process from unripe apples might be applied to food industry for enhancing bioactive compound production.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1] Adil, İ.H., Çetin, H.İ., Yener, M.E., Bayındırlı, A., 2007. Subcritical (carbon dioxide+ethanol) extraction of polyphenol from apple and peach pomaces, and determination of the antioxidant activities of the extracts. J. Supercrit. Fluids, 43(1):55-63.

[2] Ahn, S.C., Kim, M.S., Lee, S.Y., Kang, J.H., Kim, B.H., Oh, W.K., Kim, B.Y., Ahn, J.S., 2005. Increase of bioactive flavonoid aglycone extractable from Korean citrus peel by carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes. Kor. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 33(4):288-294 (in Korea).

[3] Akiyama, H., Yuji, S., Takahiro, W., Megumi, H.N., Yasuo, Y., Toshihiko, S., Tomomasa, K., Kiyoshi, Y., Mamoru, T., Reiko, T., Sawada, J., Yukihiro, G., Tamio, M., 2005. Dietary unripe apple polyphenol inhibits the development of food allergies in murine models. FEBS Lett., 579(20): 4485-4491.

[4] Alonso-Salces, R.M., Herrero, C., Barranco, A., Berrueta, L.A., Gallo, B., Vicente, F., 2005. Classification of apple fruits according to their maturity state by the pattern recognition analysis of their polyphenolic compositions. Food Chem., 93(1):113-123.

[5] Awad, M.A., de Jager, A., van der Plas, L.H.W., van der Krol, A.R., 2001. Flavonoid and chlorogenic acid changes in skin of ‘Elstar’ and ‘Jonagold’ apples during development and ripening. Sci. Hortic., 90(1):69-83.

[6] Benoit, I., Navarro, D., Marnet, N., Rakotomanomana, N., Meessen, L.L., Sigoillot, J.C., Asther, M., 2006. Feruloyl esterases as a tool for the release of phenolic compounds from agro-industrial by-products. Carbohyd. Res., 341(11): 1820-1827.

[7] Dueñas, M., Hernández, T., Estrella, I., 2007. Changes in the content of bioactive polyphenolic compounds of lentils by the action of exogenous enzymes. effect on their antioxidant activity. Food Chem., 101(1):90-97.

[8] D'Angelo, S., Cimmino, A., Raimo, M., Salvatore, A., Zappla, V., Galletti, P., 2007. Effect of reddening-ripening on the antioxidant activity of polyphenol extracts from cv. ‘Annurca’ apple fruits. J. Agric. Food Chem., 55(24): 9977-9985.

[9] Huang, D.J., Ou, B.X., Prior, R.L., 2005. The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays. J. Agric. Food Chem., 53(6): 1841-1856.

[10] Khanizadeh, S., Tsao, R., Rekika, D., Yang, R., Charles, M.T., Rupasinghe, H.P.V., 2008. Polyphenol composition and total antioxidant capacity of selected apple genotypes for processing. J. Food Compos. Anal., 21(5):396-401.

[11] Kojima, T., Akiyama, S., Taniuchi, S., Goda, Y., Toyoda, M., Kobayashi, Y., 2000. Anti-allergic effect of apple polyphenol on patients with atopic dermatitis: a pilot study. Allergol. Int., 49(1):69-73.

[12] Landbo, A.K., Meyer, A.S., 2001. Enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidative phenols from black currant juice press residues (Ribes nigrum). J. Agric. Food Chem., 49(7): 3169-3177.

[13] Le Bourvellec, C., Guyot, S., Renard, C.M.G.C., 2009. Interactions between apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) polyphenol and cell walls modulate the extractability of polysaccharides. Carbohyd. Polym., 75(2):251-261.

[14] Liyana-Pathirana, C., Shahidi, F., 2005. Optimization of extraction of phenolic compounds from wheat using response surface methodology. Food Chem., 93(1):47-56.

[15] Makris, D.P., Boskou, G., Andrikopoulos, N.K., 2007. Polyphenolic content and in vitro antioxidant characteristics of wine industry and other agri-food solid waste extracts. J. Food Compost. Anal., 20(2):125-132.

[16] Meyer, A.S., Jepsen, S.M., Sørensen, N.S., 1998. Enzymatic release of antioxidants for human low-density lipoprotein from grape pomace. J. Agric. Food Chem., 46(7):2439-2446.

[17] Miller, G.L., 1959. Modified DNS method for reducing sugars. Anal. Chem., 31(3):426-428.

[18] Park, M.K., Kim, C.H., 2009. Extraction of polyphenols from apple peel using cellulase and pectinase and estimation of antioxidant activity. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr., 38(5): 535-540 (in Korea).

[19] Park, M.W., Park, Y.K., Kim, E.S., 2004. Properties of phenolic compounds in unripe apples. J. East Asian Soc. Dietary Life, 14(4):343-347 (in Korea).

[20] Pinelo, M., Rubilar, M., Jerez, M., Sineiro, J., Núñez, M.J., 2005. Effect of solvent, temperature, and solvent-to-solid ratio on the total phenolic content and antiradical activity of extracts from different components of grape pomace. J. Agric. Food Chem., 53(6):2111-2117.

[21] Pinelo, M., Arnous, A., Meyer, A.S., 2006. Upgrading of grape skins: significance of plant cell-wall structural components and extraction techniques for phenol release. Trends Food Sci. Tech., 17(11):579-590.

[22] Pinelo, M., Zornoza, B., Meyer, A.S., 2008. Selective release of phenols from apple skin: mass transfer kinetics during solvent and enzyme-assisted extraction. Sep. Purif. Technol., 63(3):620-627.

[23] Renard, C.M.G.C., Baron, A., Guyot, S., Drilleau, J.F., 2001. Interactions between apple cell walls and native apple polyphenol: quantification and some consequences. Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 29(2):115-125.

[24] Renard, C.M.G.C., Dupont, N., Guillermin, P., 2007. Concentrations and characteristics of procyanidins and other phenolics in apples during fruit growth. Phytochemistry, 68(8):1128-1138.

[25] Schieber, A., Keller, P., Carle, R., 2001. Determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids of apple and pear by high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A, 910(2):265-273.

[26] Silva, E.M., Rogez, H., Larondelle, Y., 2007. Optimization of extraction of phenolics from Inga edulis leaves using response surface methodology. Sep. Purif. Technol., 55(3):381-387.

[27] Silvina, B.L., Balz, F., 2004. Relevance of apple polyphenols as antioxidants in human plasma: contrasting in vitro and in vivo effects. Free Radical Bio. Med., 36(2):201-211.

[28] Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R., Lamuela-Raventos, R.M., 1999. Analysis of total phenolic and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol., 299:152-178.

[29] Sørensen, H.R., Pedersen, S., Anders, V.N., Meyer, A.S., 2005. Efficiencies of designed enzyme combinations in releasing arabinose and xylose from wheat arabinoxylan in an industrial ethanol fermentation residue. Enzyme Microb. Tech., 36(5-6):773-784.

[30] Stalikas, C.D., 2007. Extraction, separation, and detection methods for phenolic acids and flavonoids. J. Sep. Sci., 30(18):3268-3295.

[31] Sudha, M.L., Baskaran, V., Leelavathi, K., 2007. Apple pomace as a source of dietary fiber and polyphenol and its effect on the rheological characteristics and cake making. Food Chem., 104(2):686-692.

[32] Sun-Waterhouse, D., Melton, L.D., O'Connor, C.J., Kilmartin, P.A., Smith, B.G., 2008. Effect of apple cell walls and their extracts on the activity of dietary antioxidants. J. Agric. Food Chem., 56(1):289-295.

[33] Wang, J., Sun, B.G., Cao, Y.P., Tian, Y., Li, X.H., 2008. Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from wheat bran. Food Chem., 106(2): 804-810.

[34] Weinberg, Z.G., Akiri, B., Potoyevski, E., Kanner, J., 1999. Enhancement of polyphenol recovery from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and sage (Salvia officinalis) by enzyme-assisted ensiling (ENLAC). J. Agric. Food Chem., 47(7):2959-2962.

[35] Wu, J.H., Gao, H.Y., Zhao, L., Liao, X.J., Chen, F., Wang, Z.F., Hu, X.S., 2007. Chemical compositional characterization of some apple cultivars. Food Chem., 103(1): 88-93.

[36] Yanagida, A., Kanda, T., Tanabe, M., Matsudaira, F., Oliveira, C.J.G., 2000. Inhibitory effects of apple polyphenols and related compounds on cariogenic factors of mutans streptococci. J. Agric. Food Chem., 48(11):5666-5671.

[37] Zheng, H.Z., Lee, H.R., Lee, S.H., Kim, C.S., Chung, S.K., 2008. Pectinase assisted extraction of polyphenol from apple pomace. Chin. J. Anal. Chem., 36(3):306-310 (in Chinese).

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2022 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE