Full Text:   <3361>

CLC number: Q946

On-line Access: 2010-12-09

Received: 2010-05-11

Revision Accepted: 2010-08-11

Crosschecked: 2010-10-09

Cited: 41

Clicked: 6410

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2010 Vol.11 No.12 P.973-980


Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of certain Morus species

Author(s):  Mohammad Imran, Hamayun Khan, Mohibullah Shah, Rasool Khan, Faridullah Khan

Affiliation(s):  Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan, Department of Chemistry, Islamia College University, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan, Pakistan Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (PCSIR) Laboratories Complex, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan

Corresponding email(s):   hamayun84@yahoo.com

Key Words:  Mulberry fruits, Chemical composition, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, Nutritional value, Pakistan

Share this article to: More <<< Previous Article|

Mohammad Imran, Hamayun Khan, Mohibullah Shah, Rasool Khan, Faridullah Khan. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of certain Morus species[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2010, 11(12): 973-980.

@article{title="Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of certain Morus species",
author="Mohammad Imran, Hamayun Khan, Mohibullah Shah, Rasool Khan, Faridullah Khan",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of certain Morus species
%A Mohammad Imran
%A Hamayun Khan
%A Mohibullah Shah
%A Rasool Khan
%A Faridullah Khan
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 11
%N 12
%P 973-980
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2010
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.B1000173

T1 - Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of certain Morus species
A1 - Mohammad Imran
A1 - Hamayun Khan
A1 - Mohibullah Shah
A1 - Rasool Khan
A1 - Faridullah Khan
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 11
IS - 12
SP - 973
EP - 980
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2010
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.B1000173

In the present work, the fruits of four Morus species, namely Morus alba (white mulberry), Morus nigra (black mulberry), Morus laevigata (large white fruit), and Morus laevigata (large black fruit), were analyzed for proximate composition, essential minerals, and antioxidant potentials. For this purpose, the ripe fruits were collected from the northern regions of pakistan. The major nutritional components (moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, fibres, carbohydrates, and total sugar) were found to be in the suitable range along with good computed energy. Total dry weight, pH, and titratable acidity (percent citric acid) were (17.60±1.94)&#x2013;(21.97±2.34) mg/100 g, (3.20±0.07)&#x2013;(4.78±0.15), and (0.84±0.40)%&#x2013;(2.00±0.08)%, respectively. Low riboflavin (vitamin B2) and niacin (vitamin B3) contents were recorded in all the fruits, while ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was in the range from (15.20±1.25) to (17.03±1.71) mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). The 28mulberry fruits%29&ck%5B%5D=abstract&ck%5B%5D=keyword'>2f4a8b>mulberry fruits were rich with regard to the total phenol and alkaloid contents, having values of (880±7.20)&#x2013;(1650±12.25) mg/100 g FW and (390±3.22)&#x2013;(660±5.25) mg/100 g FW, respectively. Sufficient quantities of essential macro-(K, Ca, Mg, and Na) and micro-(Fe, Zn, and Ni) elements were found in all the fruits. K was the predominant element with concentration ranging from (1270±9.36) to (1731±11.50) mg/100 g, while Ca, Na, and Mg contents were (440±3.21)&#x2013;(576±7.37), (260±3.86)&#x2013;(280±3.50), and (240±3.51)&#x2013;(360±4.20) mg/100 g, respectivly. The decreasing order of micro-minerals was Fe>Zn>Ni. The radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of fruits was concentration-dependent and showed a correlation with total phenolic constituents of the respective fruits. Based on the results obtained, 28mulberry fruits%29&ck%5B%5D=abstract&ck%5B%5D=keyword'>2f4a8b>mulberry fruits were found to serve as a potential source of food diet and natural antioxidants.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]Al-Bayati, F.A., Al-Mola, H.F., 2008. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of different parts of Tribulus terrestris L. growing in Iraq. J. Zhejiang Univ.-Sci. B, 9(2):154-159.

[2]AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists), 2000. Official Methods of Analysis International, 17th Ed. AOAC, Washington, DC.

[3]Arabshahi-Delouee, S., Urooj, A., 2007. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves. Food Chem., 102(4):1233-1240.

[4]Christie, W.W., 1983. Lipids. In: Aliphatic and Related Natural Product Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

[5]Cieslik, E., Greda, A., Adamus, W., 2006. Contents of polyphenols in fruit and vegetables. Food Chem., 94(1):135-142.

[6]Darias-Martin, J., Lobo-Rodrigo, G., Hernandez-Cordero, J., Diaz-Diaz, E., Diaz-Romero, C., 2003. Alcoholic beverages obtained from black mulberry. Food Technol. Biotechnol., 41(2):173-176.

[7]Duke, J.A., Ayensu, E.S., 1985. Medicinal Plants of China. Reference Publications Inc., Algonac, MI.

[8]Elmacı, Y., Altuğ, T., 2002. Flavour evaluation of three black mulberry (Morus nigra) cultivars using GC/MS, chemical and sensory data. J. Sci. Food Agric., 82(6):632-635.

[9]Ercisli, S., Orhan, E., 2007. Chemical composition of white (Morus alba), red (Morus rubra) and black (M. nigra) mulberry fruits. Food Chem., 103(4):1380-1384.

[10]Fogliano, V., Verde, V., Randazzo, G., Ritieni, A., 1999. Method for measuring antioxidant activity and its application to monitoring the antioxidant capacity of wines. J. Agric. Food Chem., 47(3):1035-1040.

[11]Gao, X., Ohlander, M., Jeppsson, N., Björk, L., Trajkovski, V., 2000. Changes in antioxidant effects and their relationship to phytonutrients in fruits of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) during maturation. J. Agric. Food Chem., 48(5):1485-1490.

[12]Gerasopoulos, D., Stavroulakis, G., 1997. Quality characteristics of four mulberry (Morus sp.) cultivars in the area of Chania, Greece. J. Sci. Food Agric., 73(2):261-264.

[13]Hou, Y.J., 1994. Mulberry Breeding. PhD Thesis, Sericulture Department, Zhejiang Agriculture University, Hangzhou, China (in Chinese).

[14]Humphry, C.M., Clegg, M.S., Keen, C.L., Grivetti, L.E., 1993. Food diversity and drought survival. The Hausa example. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr., 44(1):1-16.

[15]Hussain, I., Khan, H., 2010. Investigation of heavy metals content in medicinal plant, Eclipta alba L. J. Chem. Soc. Pak., 32(1):28-33.

[16]Hussain, I., Khan, L., Mehmood, T., Khan, I., Ullah, W., Khan, H., 2005. Effect of heavy metals on the growth and development of Silybum marianum, in various polluted areas of Peshawar, Pakistan. J. Chem. Soc. Pak., 27(4):367-373.

[17]Hussain, I., Khan, L., Marwat, G.A., Ahmed, N., Saleem, M., 2008. Comparative study of vitamin C contents in fruits and medicinal plants. J. Chem. Soc. Pak., 30(3):406-409.

[18]Ikhtiar, K., Alam, Z., 2007. Nutritional composition of Pakistani wheat varieties. J. Zhejiang Univ.-Sci. B, 8(8):555-559.

[19]Imran, M., Talpur, F.N., Jan, M.S., Khan, A., Khan, I., 2007. Analysis of nutritional components of some wild edible plants. J. Chem. Soc. Pak., 29(5):500-508.

[20]Imran, M., Khan, H., Hassan, S.S., Khan, R., 2008. Physicochemical characteristics of various milk samples available in Pakistan. J. Zhejiang Univ.-Sci. B, 9(7):546-551.

[21]Khan, T., Ahmad, M., Khan, R., Khan, H., Ejaz, A., Choudhary, M.I., 2006. Evaluation of phytomedicinal potentials of selected plants of Pakistan. Am. Lab., 38(9):20-22.

[22]Kjeldahl, J., 1983. Determination of protein nitrogen in food products. Encyc. Food Agric., 28:757-765.

[23]Lin, J.Y., Tang, C.Y., 2007. Determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents in selected fruits and vegetables, as well as their stimulatory effects on mouse splenocyte proliferation. Food Chem., 101(1):140-147.

[24]Muler, H.G., Tobin, G., 1980. Nutrition of Food Processing. Croom Helm Ltd., London.

[25]Okwu, D.E., 2005. Phytochemicals, vitamins and mineral contents of two Nigerian medicinal plants. Int. J. Mol. Med. Adv. Sci., 1(4):375-381.

[26]Onyeike, E.N., Ikru, P.R., 1998. Preliminary investigation of proximate composition of heat processed cashew nut seed (Anacardium occidentale) flours. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage., 1(1):27-30.

[27]Peterson, D.M., Emmons, C.L.L., Hibbs, A.H., 2001. Phenolic antioxidants and antioxidant activity in pearling fractions of oat groats. J. Cereal Sci., 33(1):97-103.

[28]Sass-Kiss, A., 2005. Differences in anthocyanin and carotenoid content of fruits and vegetables. Food Res. Int., 38(8-9):1023-1029.

[29]Zadernowski, R., Naczk, M., Nesterowicz, J., 2005. Phenolic acid profiles in some small berries. J. Agric. Food Chem., 53(6):2118-2124.

[30]Zheng, W., Wang, S.Y., 2001. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs. J. Agric. Food Chem., 49(11):5165-5170.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Dr. Hamayun Khan@Islamia College University Peshawar Pakistan<hamayun84@yahoo.com>

2011-05-11 17:11:44

This article has been cited by

1. Orient Pharm Exp Med (2011) 11:35–39

2. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2011)316-322

Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2022 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE