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Zhi LI


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Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2022 Vol.23 No.5 P.365-381


Physicochemical properties, molecular structure, antioxidant activity, and biological function of extracellular melanin from Ascosphaera apis

Author(s):  Zhi LI, Hui HENG, Qiqian QIN, Lanchun CHEN, Yuedi WANG, Zeyang ZHOU

Affiliation(s):  College of Life Sciences, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   lizhicqnu@gmail.com

Key Words:  Melanin, Molecular structure, Antioxidant activity, Subcellular localization, Ascosphaera apis

Zhi LI, Hui HENG, Qiqian QIN, Lanchun CHEN, Yuedi WANG, Zeyang ZHOU. Physicochemical properties, molecular structure, antioxidant activity, and biological function of extracellular melanin from Ascosphaera apis[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2022, 23(5): 365-381.

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author="Zhi LI, Hui HENG, Qiqian QIN, Lanchun CHEN, Yuedi WANG, Zeyang ZHOU",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Physicochemical properties, molecular structure, antioxidant activity, and biological function of extracellular melanin from Ascosphaera apis
%A Zhi LI
%A Qiqian QIN
%A Lanchun CHEN
%A Yuedi WANG
%A Zeyang ZHOU
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 23
%N 5
%P 365-381
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2022
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.B2100718

T1 - Physicochemical properties, molecular structure, antioxidant activity, and biological function of extracellular melanin from Ascosphaera apis
A1 - Zhi LI
A1 - Hui HENG
A1 - Qiqian QIN
A1 - Lanchun CHEN
A1 - Yuedi WANG
A1 - Zeyang ZHOU
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 23
IS - 5
SP - 365
EP - 381
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2022
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.B2100718

Ascosphaera apis spores containing a dark-colored pigment infect honeybee larvae, resulting in a large-scale collapse of the bee colony due to chalkbrood disease. However, little is known about the pigment or whether it plays a role in bee infection caused by A. apis. In this study, the pigment was isolated by alkali extraction, acid hydrolysis, and repeated precipitation. Ultraviolet (UV) analysis revealed that the pigment had a color value of 273, a maximum absorption peak at 195 nm, and a high alkaline solubility (7.67%) and acid precipitability. Further chemical structure analysis of the pigment, including elemental composition, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), proved that it was a eumelanin with a typical indole structure. The molecular formula of melanin is C10H6O4N2, and its molecular weight is 409 Da. melanin has hydroxyl, carboxyl, amino, and phenolic groups that can potentially chelate to metal ions. Antioxidant function analyses showed that A. apis melanin had a high scavenging activity against superoxide, hydroxyl, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, and a high reducing ability to Fe3+. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses showed that A. apis melanin was located on the spore wall. The spore wall localization, antioxidant activity, and metal ion chelating properties of fungal melanin have been suggested to contribute to spore pathogenicity. However, further infection experiments showed that melanin-deficient spores did not reduce the mortality of bee larvae, indicating that melanin does not increase the virulence of A. apis spores. This study is the first report on melanin produced by A. apis, providing an important background reference for further study on its role in A. apis.




Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


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