Full Text:   <4089>

CLC number: Q949.96

On-line Access: 2012-06-29

Received: 2011-01-17

Revision Accepted: 2011-11-30

Crosschecked: 2012-09-23

Cited: 6

Clicked: 5918

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2012 Vol.13 No.10 P.783-790


Acute and subacute oral toxicity of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil in rats

Author(s):  Siti Balkis Budin, Seri Masran Siti Nor Ain, Baharuddin Omar, Izatus Shima Taib, Othman Hidayatulfathi

Affiliation(s):  Biomedical Science Programme, School of Diagnostic and Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 50300 Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; more

Corresponding email(s):   hida@medic.ukm.my

Key Words:  Litsea elliptica, Acute toxicity, Subacute toxicity, Median lethal dose (LD50), Natural insecticide, Non-observed-adversed-effect level (NOAEL)

Siti Balkis Budin, Seri Masran Siti Nor Ain, Baharuddin Omar, Izatus Shima Taib, Othman Hidayatulfathi. Acute and subacute oral toxicity of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil in rats[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2012, 13(10): 783-790.

@article{title="Acute and subacute oral toxicity of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil in rats",
author="Siti Balkis Budin, Seri Masran Siti Nor Ain, Baharuddin Omar, Izatus Shima Taib, Othman Hidayatulfathi",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Acute and subacute oral toxicity of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil in rats
%A Siti Balkis Budin
%A Seri Masran Siti Nor Ain
%A Baharuddin Omar
%A Izatus Shima Taib
%A Othman Hidayatulfathi
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 13
%N 10
%P 783-790
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2012
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.B1100021

T1 - Acute and subacute oral toxicity of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil in rats
A1 - Siti Balkis Budin
A1 - Seri Masran Siti Nor Ain
A1 - Baharuddin Omar
A1 - Izatus Shima Taib
A1 - Othman Hidayatulfathi
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 13
IS - 10
SP - 783
EP - 790
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2012
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.B1100021

Litsea elliptica Blume has been traditionally used to treat headache, fever, and stomach ulcer, and has also been used as an insect repellent. The acute and subacute toxicities of L. elliptica essential oil were evaluated orally by gavage in female Sprague-Dawley rats. For the acute toxicity study, L. elliptica essential oil was administered in doses from 500 to 4000 mg/kg (single dose), and in the subacute toxicity test, the following doses were used: 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, for 28 consecutive days. In the acute toxicity study, L. elliptica essential oil caused dose-dependent adverse behaviours and mortality. The median lethal dose value was 3488.86 mg/kg and the acute non-observed-adversed-effect level value was found to be 500 mg/kg. The subacute toxicity study of L. elliptica essential oil did not reveal alterations in body weight, and food and water consumptions. The haematological and biochemical analyses did not show significant differences between control and treated groups in most of the parameters examined, except for the hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, serum albumin, and serum sodium. However, these differences were still within the normal range. No abnormalities or histopathological changes were observed in the liver, pancreatic islet of Langerhans, and renal glomerulous and tubular cells of all treated groups. In conclusion, L. elliptica essential oil can be classified in the U group, which is defined as a group unlikely to present an acute hazard according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]Arts, J.H., Muijser, H., Appel, M.J., Frieke Kuper, C., Bessems, J.G., Woutersen, R.A., 2004. Subacute (28-day) toxicity of furfural in Fischer 344 rats: a comparison of the oral and inhalation route. Food Chem. Toxicol., 42(9):1389-1399.

[2]Bautista, A.R.P.L., Moreira, E.L.T., Batista, M.S., Miranda, M.S., Gomes, I.C.S., 2004. Subacute toxicity assessment of annatto in rat. Food Chem. Toxicol., 42(4):625-629.

[3]Bhamarapravati, S., Pendland, S.L., Mahady, G.B., 2003. Extracts of spice and food plants from Thai traditional medicine inhibit the growth of the human carcinogen Helicobacter Pylori. In Vivo, 17(6):541-544.

[4]Celik, I., Suzek, H., 2008. The hematological effects of methyl parathion in rats. J. Hazard. Mater., 153(3):1117-1121.

[5]Costa, L.G., 2006. Current issues in organophosphate toxicology. Clin. Chim. Acta, 336(1-2):1-13.

[6]Costa-Silva, J.H., Lima, C.R., Silva, E.J.R., Araújo, A.V.M., Fraga, M.C.C.A., Ribeiro, E.R.A., Arruda, A.C., Lafayette, S.S.L., Wanderley, A.G., 2008. Acute and subacute toxicity of the Carapa guianensis Aublet (Meliaceae) seed oil. J. Ethnopharmacol., 116(3):495-500.

[7]EI Hilaly, J., Israili, Z.H., Lyoussi, B., 2004. Acute and chronic toxicological studies of Ajuga iva in experimental animals. J. Ethnopharmacol., 91(1):43-50.

[8]EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), 2000. Health Effects Test Guidelines: OPPTS 870.3050. Repeated Dose 28-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents. United States Environmental Protection Agency.

[9]EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), 2002. Health Effects Test Guidelines: OPPTS 870.1100. Acute Oral Toxicity. United States Environmental Protection Agency.

[10]Gotoh, N., Watanabe, H., Osato, R., Inagaki, K., Iwasawa, A., Wada, S., 2006. Novel approach on the risk assessment of oxidized fats and oils for perspectives of food safety and quality. I. Oxidized fats and oils induces neurotoxicity relating pica behavior and hypoactivity. Food Chem. Toxicol., 44(4):493-498.

[11]Grosvenor, P.W., Gothard, P.K., McWilliam, N.C., Supriono, A., Gray, D.O., 1995. Medicinal plants from Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. Part 1: Uses. J. Ethnopharmacol., 45(2):75-95.

[12]Hidayatulfathi, O., Sallehuddin, S., Ibrahim, J., 2004. Adulticidal activity of some Malaysian plant extracts against Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. Trop. Biomed., 21(2):61-67.

[13]Hidayatulfathi, O., Sallehudin, S., Ibrahim, J., Azizol, A.K., 2003. Evaluation of methanol extracts of some Malaysian plants for larvicidal activities. Trop. Biomed., 20(2):153-157.

[14]Ibrahim, J., Zaridah, M.Z., 1998. Development of environment-friendly insect repellents from the leaf oils of selected Malaysian plants. ASEAN Rev. Biodiv. Environ. Conserv., 6:1-7.

[15]Isman, M.B., Machial, C.M., 2006. Chapter 2 Pesticides based on plant essential oils: from traditional practice to commercialization. Adv. Phytomed., 3:29-44.

[16]Jiwajinda, S., Santisopasri, V., Murakami, A., Kawanaka, M., Kawanaka, H., Gasquet, M., Eilas, R., Balansard, G., Ohigashi, H., 2002. In vitro anti-tumor promoting and anti-parasitic activities of the quassinoids from Eurycoma longifolia, a medicinal plant in Southeast Asia. J. Ethnopharmacol., 82(1):55-58.

[17]Konan, N.A., Bacchi, E.M, Lincopan, N., Varela, S.D., Varanda, E.A., 2007. Acute, subacute toxicity and genotoxic effect of a hydroethanolic extract of the cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.). J. Ethnopharmacol., 110(1):30-38.

[18]Kwong, T.C., 2002. Organophosphate pesticides: biochemistry and clinical toxicology. Ther. Drug Monit., 24(1):144-149.

[19]Lansdown, A.B.G., 1993. Animal Husbandry. In: Anderson, D., Conning, D.M. (Eds.), Experimental Toxicity, the Basic Issues, 2nd Ed. Royal Society of Chemistry, London, UK, p.82-106.

[20]Li, X., Luo, Y., Wang, L., Li, Y., Shi, Y., Cui, Y., Xue, M., 2010. Acute and subacute toxicity of ethanol extracts from Salvia przewalskii Maxim in rodents. J. Ethnopharmacol., 131(1):110-115.

[21]Liang, H.K., 1996. Clinical evaluation of the poisoned patient and toxic syndromes. Clin. Chem., 42(8 Pt 2):1350-1355.

[22]Mittal, P.K., Subbarao, S.K., 2003. Prospects of using herbal products in the control of mosquito vectors. ICMR Bull., 33(1):1-10.

[23]Nakahara, K., Trakoontivakorn, G., Alzoreky, N.S., Ono, H., Onishi-Kameyama, M., Yoshida, M., 2002. Antimutagenicity of some edible Thai plants, and bioactive carbazole alkaloid, mahanine, isolated from Micromelum minutum. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50(17):4796-4802.

[24]Ochei, J., Kolhatkar, A., 2000. Medical Laboratory Science: Theory and Practice. Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, India, p.391-450.

[25]Petterino, C., Argentino-Storino, A., 2006. Clinical chemistry and haematology historical data in control Sprague-Dawley rats from pre-clinical toxicity studies. Exp. Toxicol. Pathol., 57:213-219.

[26]Rohani, A., Nazni, W.A., Ngo, L.V., Ibrahim, J., Lee, H.L., 1997. Adulticidal properties of the essential extracts of some Malaysian plants on vector mosquitoes. Trop. Biomed., 14:5-9.

[27]Sanderson, J.H., Philips, C.E., 1981. An Atlas of Laboratory Animal Haematology. Oxford University Press, USA, p.473.

[28]Taib, I.S., Budin, S.B., Siti Nor Ain, S.M., Mohamed, J., Louis, S.R., Das, S., Sallehudin, S., Rajab, N.F., Hidayatulfathi, O., 2009. Toxic effects of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil on red blood cells of Sprague-Dawley rats. J. Zhejiang Univ.-Sci. B (Biomed. & Biotechnol.), 10(11):813-819.

[29]Wang, J., Zhou, G., Chen, C., Yu, H., Wang, T., Ma, Y., Jia, G., Gao, Y., Li, B., Sun, J., et al., 2007. Acute toxicity and biodistribution of different sized titanium dioxide particles in mice after oral administration. Toxicol. Lett., 168(2):176-185.

[30]WHO (World Health Organization), 1995. Pesticides Residues in Food—1995 evaluation. Joint FAO/WHO. Meeting on Pesticides Residues in Food. Part II: Toxicological and Environmental. Available from http://www.who.int/ipcs/ publications/jmpr/en [Accessed on Oct. 13, 2009].

[31]WHO (World Health Organization), 2005. The WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazards and Guidelines to Classification 2004. International Programme on Chemical Safety, Geneva, Switzerland.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2022 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE