Full Text:   <1698>

Summary:  <1099>

CLC number: R96

On-line Access: 2019-01-07

Received: 2018-03-20

Revision Accepted: 2018-08-20

Crosschecked: 2018-12-29

Cited: 0

Clicked: 2484

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2019 Vol.20 No.1 P.9-22

http://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B1800171


A systematic review of herbal medicines for the treatment of cancer cachexia in animal models


Author(s):  Bongki Park, Sooseong You, William C. S. Cho, Jun-Yong Choi, Myeong Soo Lee

Affiliation(s):  Liver and Immunology Research Center, Oriental College, Daejeon University, Daejeon 34020, Republic of Korea; more

Corresponding email(s):   drmslee@gmail.com, mslee@kiom.re.kr

Key Words:  Cancer, Cachexia, Herbal medicine, Traditional East Asian medicine systematic review


Bongki Park, Sooseong You, William C. S. Cho, Jun-Yong Choi, Myeong Soo Lee. A systematic review of herbal medicines for the treatment of cancer cachexia in animal models[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2019, 20(1): 9-22.

@article{title="A systematic review of herbal medicines for the treatment of cancer cachexia in animal models",
author="Bongki Park, Sooseong You, William C. S. Cho, Jun-Yong Choi, Myeong Soo Lee",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
volume="20",
number="1",
pages="9-22",
year="2019",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",
doi="10.1631/jzus.B1800171"
}

%0 Journal Article
%T A systematic review of herbal medicines for the treatment of cancer cachexia in animal models
%A Bongki Park
%A Sooseong You
%A William C. S. Cho
%A Jun-Yong Choi
%A Myeong Soo Lee
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 20
%N 1
%P 9-22
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2019
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.B1800171

TY - JOUR
T1 - A systematic review of herbal medicines for the treatment of cancer cachexia in animal models
A1 - Bongki Park
A1 - Sooseong You
A1 - William C. S. Cho
A1 - Jun-Yong Choi
A1 - Myeong Soo Lee
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 20
IS - 1
SP - 9
EP - 22
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2019
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.B1800171


Abstract: 
Objective: The aim of this study is to summarize preclinical studies on herbal medicines used to treat cancer cachexia and its underlying mechanisms. Methods: We searched four representing databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, and the Web of Science up to December 2016. Randomized animal studies were included if the effects of any herbal medicine were tested on cancer cachexia. The methodological quality was evaluated by the Collaborative Approach to Meta-Analysis and Review of Animal Data from Experimental Studies (CAMARADE) checklist. Results: A total of fourteen herbal medicines and their compounds were identified, including Coptidis Rhizoma, berberine, Bing De Ling, curcumin, Qing-Shu-Yi-Qi-Tang, Scutellaria baicalensis, Hochuekkito, Rikkunshito, hesperidin, atractylodin, Sipjeondaebo-tang, Sosiho-tang, Anemarrhena Rhizoma, and Phellodendri Cortex. All the herbal medicines, except curcumin, have been shown to ameliorate the symptoms of cancer cachexia through anti-inflammation, regulation of the neuroendocrine pathway, and modulation of the ubiquitin proteasome system or protein synthesis. Conclusions: This study showed that herbal medicines might be a useful approach for treating cancer cachexia. However, more detailed experimental studies on the molecular mechanisms and active compounds are needed.

中草药对治疗癌症恶病质动物模型有效性的系统性回顾

概要:本综述总结利用中草药治疗癌症恶病质的临床前研究及其潜在的机制,是首个针对中草药治疗癌症恶病质动物模型成效进行系统性回顾评价的研究.本文通过检索PubMed、EMBASE、Allied and Complementary Medicine Database以及Web of Science四大代表性的资料库(检索时间至2016年12月),就中草药治疗癌症恶病质的随机对照动物试验进行系统性回顾分析,并采用CAMARADE评分清单进行质量评价.分析结果显示:在十四项中草药及其化合物中,除了姜黄素外其他如黄连、黄连素、病得灵、清暑益气汤、黄芩、补中益气汤、六君子汤、橙皮苷、苍术呋喃烃、十全大补汤、小柴胡汤、知母及黄柏等都已被证实可以通过抗炎、调节神经内分泌途径、调节泛素蛋白酶体系统或蛋白质合成来改善癌症恶病质的症状.因此,利用中草药治疗癌症恶病质是一种有效的方法.然而该结论尚需要有更详细的分子机制和活性化合物的实验研究验证.
关键词:癌症;恶病质;中草药;传统东亚医学系统性回顾

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article

Reference

[1]Agyemang K, Han LF, Liu EW, et al., 2013. Recent advances in Astragalus membranaceus anti-diabetic research: pharmacological effects of its phytochemical constituents. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2013:654643.

[2]Argilés JM, Anguera A, Stemmler B, 2013. A new look at an old drug for the treatment of cancer cachexia: megestrol acetate. Clin Nutr, 32(3):319-324.

[3]Beckett DM, Pycha K, Berg T, 2008. Effects of curcumin on tumor growth and muscle mass in a mouse model of cancer cachexia. Oncol Nurs Forum, 35(3):455-459.

[4]Blum D, Stene GB, Solheim TS, et al., 2014. Validation of the consensus-definition for cancer cachexia and evaluation of a classification model—a study based on data from an international multicentre project (EPCRC-CSA). Ann Oncol, 25(8):1635-1642.

[5]Brown JK, 2002. A systematic review of the evidence on symptom management of cancer-related anorexia and cachexia. Oncol Nurs Forum, 29(3):517-532.

[6]Chen YJ, Wu YX, Wang HX, et al., 2012. A new 9-nor-atractylodin from Atractylodes lancea and the antibacterial activity of the atractylodin derivatives. Fitoterapia, 83(1):199-203.

[7]Cho WCS, Leung KN, 2007a. In vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effects of Astragalus membranaceus. Cancer Lett, 252(1):43-54.

[8]Cho WCS, Leung KN, 2007b. In vitro and in vivo immunomodulating and immunorestorative effects of Astragalus membranaceus. J Ethnopharmacol, 113(1):132-141.

[9]Choi YK, Jung KY, Woo SM, et al., 2014. Effect of Sipjeondaebo-tang on cancer-induced anorexia and cachexia in CT-26 tumor-bearing mice. Mediators Inflamm, 2014:736563.

[10]Choi YY, Kim MH, Cho IH, et al., 2013. Inhibitory effect of Coptis chinensis on inflammation in LPS-induced endotoxemia. J Ethnopharmacol, 149(2):506-512.

[11]Chou YJ, Kuo CY, Chen PY, et al., 2012. Oral administration of Qing-Shu-Yi-Qi-Tang reduce lung cancer-induced cachexia in mice. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol, 6(2):84-91.

[12]Crawford J, Prado CMM, Johnston MA, et al., 2016. Study design and rationale for the phase 3 clinical development program of enobosarm, a selective androgen receptor modulator, for the prevention and treatment of muscle wasting in cancer patients (POWER Trials). Curr Oncol Rep, 18(6):37.

[13]Davis M, Lasheen W, Walsh D, et al., 2012. A phase II dose titration study of thalidomide for cancer-associated anorexia. J Pain Symptom Manage, 43(1):78-86.

[14]Del Fabbro E, Dev R, Hui D, et al., 2013a. Effects of melatonin on appetite and other symptoms in patients with advanced cancer and cachexia: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol, 31(10):1271-1276.

[15]Del Fabbro E, Garcia JM, Dev R, et al., 2013b. Testosterone replacement for fatigue in hypogonadal ambulatory males with advanced cancer: a preliminary double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Support Care Cancer, 21(9):2599-2607.

[16]Devassy JG, Nwachukwu ID, Jones PJH, 2015. Curcumin and cancer: barriers to obtaining a health claim. Nutr Rev, 73(3):155-165.

[17]Dobs AS, Boccia RV, Croot CC, et al., 2013. Effects of enobosarm on muscle wasting and physical function in patients with cancer: a double-blind, randomised controlled phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol, 14(4):335-345.

[18]Dong HY, He LC, Huang M, et al., 2008. Anti-inflammatory components isolated from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. Nat Prod Res, 22(16):1418-1427.

[19]Evans WJ, Morley JE, Argilés J, et al., 2008. Cachexia: a new definition. Clin Nutr, 27(6):793-799.

[20]Fearon K, Strasser F, Anker SD, et al., 2011. Definition and classification of cancer cachexia: an international consensus. Lancet Oncol, 12(5):489-495.

[21]Feng YB, Luo WQ, Zhu SQ, 2008. Explore new clinical application of Huanglian and corresponding compound prescriptions from their traditional use. China J Chin Mater Med, 33(10):1221-1225 (in Chinese).

[22]Fu J, Wang ZH, Huang LF, et al., 2014. Review of the botanical characteristics, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Astragalus membranaceus (Huangqi). Phytother Res, 28(9):1275-1283.

[23]Fujitsuka N, Uezono Y, 2014. Rikkunshito, a ghrelin potentiator, ameliorates anorexia-cachexia syndrome. Front Pharmacol, 5:271.

[24]Fujitsuka N, Asakawa A, Hayashi M, et al., 2009. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors modify physiological gastrointestinal motor activities via 5-HT2c receptor and acyl ghrelin. Biol Psychiatry, 65(9):748-759.

[25]Fujitsuka N, Asakawa A, Uezono Y, et al., 2011. Potentiation of ghrelin signaling attenuates cancer anorexia-cachexia and prolongs survival. Transl Psychiatry, 1(7):e23.

[26]Ghosh S, Banerjee S, Sil PC, 2015. The beneficial role of curcumin on inflammation, diabetes and neurodegenerative disease: a recent update. Food Chem Toxicol, 83: 111-124.

[27]He Y, Yue Y, Zheng X, et al., 2015. Curcumin, inflammation, and chronic diseases: how are they linked? Molecules, 20(5):9183-9213.

[28]Hong DS, Hui D, Bruera E, et al., 2014. MABp1, a first-in-class true human antibody targeting interleukin-1α in refractory cancers: an open-label, phase 1 dose-escalation and expansion study. Lancet Oncol, 15(6):656-666.

[29]Iizuka N, Miyamoto K, Hazama S, et al., 2000. Anticachectic effects of Coptidisrhizoma, an anti-inflammatory herb, on esophageal cancer cells that produce interleukin 6. Cancer Lett, 158(1):35-41.

[30]Iizuka N, Hazama S, Yoshimura K, et al., 2002. Anticachectic effects of the natural herb Coptidis rhizoma and berberine on mice bearing colon 26/clone 20 adenocarcinoma. Int J Cancer, 99(2):286-291.

[31]Ikegami F, Sumino M, Fujii Y, et al., 2006. Pharmacology and toxicology of Bupleurum root-containing Kampo medicines in clinical use. Hum Exp Toxicol, 25(8):481-494.

[32]Iranshahi M, Rezaee R, Parhiz H, et al., 2015. Protective effects of flavonoids against microbes and toxins: the cases of hesperidin and hesperetin. Life Sci, 137:125-132.

[33]Jang SE, Jeong JJ, Hyam SR, et al., 2013. Anticolitic effect of the rhizome mixture of Anemarrhena asphodeloides and Coptidis chinensis (AC-mix) in mice. Biomol Ther, 21(5):398-404.

[34]Jeong JS, Ryu BH, Kim JS, et al., 2010. Bojungikki-tang for cancer-related fatigue: a pilot randomized clinical trial. Integr Cancer Ther, 9(4):331-338.

[35]Kim A, Im M, Ma JY, 2016. Sosiho-tang ameliorates cachexia-related symptoms in mice bearing colon 26 adenocarcinoma by reducing systemic inflammation and muscle loss. Oncol Rep, 35(3):1841-1850.

[36]Kumar A, Ekavali, Chopra K, et al., 2015. Current knowledge and pharmacological profile of berberine: an update. Eur J Pharmacol, 761:288-297.

[37]Lee AJ, Lee HJ, Kim JD, et al., 2014. Changes of peripheral blood lymphocyte subtypes in patients with end stage cancer administered localized radiotherapy and bojungikki-tang. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2014: 207613.

[38]Lenk K, Palus S, Schur R, et al., 2013. Effect of ghrelin and its analogues, BIM-28131 and BIM-28125, on the expression of myostatin in a rat heart failure model. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle, 4(1):63-69.

[39]Lesniak W, Bala M, Jaeschke R, et al., 2008. Effects of megestrol acetate in patients with cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pol Arch Med Wewn, 118(11):636-644.

[40]Li CQ, He LC, Dong HY, et al., 2007. Screening for the anti-inflammatory activity of fractions and compounds from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. J Ethnopharmacol, 114(2):212-217.

[41]Li CR, Lin G, Zuo Z, 2011. Pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetics properties of Radix Scutellariae and its bioactive flavones. Biopharm Drug Dispos, 32(8):427-445.

[42]Li XX, Qu L, Dong YZ, et al., 2014. A review of recent research progress on the astragalus genus. Molecules, 19(11):18850-18880.

[43]Ma CH, Fan MS, Tang YH, et al., 2008. Identification of major alkaloids and steroidal saponins in rat serum by HPLC-diode array detection-MS/MS following oral administration of Huangbai-Zhimu herb-pair extract. Biomed Chromatogr, 22(8):835-850.

[44]Mantovani G, Macciò A, Massa E, et al., 2001. Managing cancer-related anorexia/cachexia. Drugs, 61(4):499-514.

[45]Matsumoto T, Sakurai MH, Kiyohara H, et al., 2000. Orally administered decoction of Kampo (Japanese herbal) medicine, “Juzen-Taiho-To” modulates cytokine secretion and induces NKT cells in mouse liver. Immunopharmacology, 46(2):149-161.

[46]Mendes MC, Pimentel GD, Costa FO, et al., 2015. Molecular and neuroendocrine mechanisms of cancer cachexia. J Endocrinol, 226(3):R29-R43.

[47]Mogami S, Hattori T, 2014. Beneficial effects of rikkunshito, a Japanese kampo medicine, on gastrointestinal dysfunction and anorexia in combination with Western drug: a systematic review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2014:519035.

[48]Muluye RA, Bian YH, Alemu PN, 2014. Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of heat-clearing Chinese herbs: a current review. J Tradit Complement Med, 4(2):93-98.

[49]Muscaritoli M, Anker SD, Argilés J, et al., 2010. Consensus definition of sarcopenia, cachexia and pre-cachexia: joint document elaborated by Special Interest Groups (SIG) “cachexia-anorexia in chronic wasting diseases” and “nutrition in geriatrics”. Clin Nutr, 29(2):154-159.

[50]Nahata M, Saegusa Y, Sadakane C, et al., 2014. Administration of exogenous acylated ghrelin or rikkunshito, an endogenous ghrelin enhancer, improves the decrease in postprandial gastric motility in an acute restraint stress mouse model. Neurogastroenterol Motil, 26(6):821-831.

[51]Naksuriya O, Okonogi S, Schiffelers RM, et al., 2014. Curcumin nanoformulations: a review of pharmaceutical properties and preclinical studies and clinical data related to cancer treatment. Biomaterials, 35(10):3365-3383.

[52]Neary NM, Small CJ, Wren AM, et al., 2004. Ghrelin increases energy intake in cancer patients with impaired appetite: acute, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 89(6):2832-2836.

[53]Niu GL, Tan J, Turner JG, et al., 2000. Bing de ling, a Chinese herbal formula, stimulates multifaceted immunologic responses in mice. DNA Cell Biol, 19(8):515-520.

[54]Ohbuchi K, Nishiumi S, Fujitsuka N, et al., 2015. Rikkunshito ameliorates cancer cachexia partly through elevation of glucarate in plasma. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2015:871832.

[55]Parhiz H, Roohbakhsh A, Soltani F, et al., 2015. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the citrus flavonoids hesperidin and hesperetin: an updated review of their molecular mechanisms and experimental models. Phytother Res, 29(3):323-331.

[56]Pascual López A, Roqué I Figuls M, Urrutia Cuchi G, et al., 2004. Systematic review of megestrol acetate in the treatment of anorexia-cachexia syndrome. J Pain Symptom Manage, 27(4):360-369.

[57]Penet MF, Bhujwalla ZM, 2015. Cancer cachexia, recent advances, and future directions. Cancer J, 21(2):117-122.

[58]Raghavendra V, Kulkarni SK, 2000. Melatonin reversal of DOI-induced hypophagia in rats; possible mechanism by suppressing 5-HT2A receptor-mediated activation of HPA axis. Brain Res, 860(1-2):112-118.

[59]Rattanasompattikul M, Molnar MZ, Lee ML, et al., 2013. Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Nutrition in Hypoalbuminemic Dialysis Patients (AIONID) study: results of the pilot-feasibility, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle, 4(4):247-257.

[60]Ru WW, Wang DL, Xu YP, et al., 2015. Chemical constituents and bioactivities of Panax ginseng (C. A. Mey.). Drug Discov Ther, 9(1):23-32.

[61]Saegusa Y, Takeda H, Muto S, et al., 2011. Decreased plasma ghrelin contributes to anorexia following novelty stress. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 301(4):E685-E696.

[62]Saegusa Y, Hattori T, Nahata M, et al., 2015. A new strategy using rikkunshito to treat anorexia and gastrointestinal dysfunction. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2015: 364260.

[63]Saiki I, 2000. A Kampo medicine “Juzen-taiho-to”: prevention of malignant progression and metastasis of tumor cells and the mechanism of action. Biol Pharm Bull, 23(6):677-688.

[64]Shanmugam MK, Rane G, Kanchi MM, et al., 2015. The multifaceted role of curcumin in cancer prevention and treatment. Molecules, 20(2):2728-2769.

[65]Strasser F, Lutz TA, Maeder MT, et al., 2008. Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of intravenous ghrelin for cancer-related anorexia/cachexia: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-crossover study. Br J Cancer, 98(2):300-308.

[66]Takahashi Y, Soejima Y, Kumagai A, et al., 2014. Japanese herbal medicines shosaikoto, inchinkoto, and juzentaihoto inhibit high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in db/db mice. Pathol Int, 64(10):490-498.

[67]Takeda H, Sadakane C, Hattori T, et al., 2008. Rikkunshito, an herbal medicine, suppresses cisplatin-induced anorexia in rats via 5-HT2 receptor antagonism. Gastroenterology, 134(7):2004-2013.

[68]Takeda H, Muto S, Hattori T, et al., 2010. Rikkunshito ameliorates the aging-associated decrease in ghrelin receptor reactivity via phosphodiesterase III inhibition. Endocrinology, 151(1):244-252.

[69]Tang YH, Sun ZL, Fan MS, et al., 2012. Anti-diabetic effects of TongGuanWan, a Chinese traditional herbal formula, in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. Planta Med, 78(1):18-23.

[70]Tatsuta M, Iishi H, 1993. Effect of treatment with Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang (TJ-43) on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal symptoms in dyspeptic patients. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 7(4):459-462.

[71]Terawaki K, Sawada Y, Kashiwase Y, et al., 2014. New cancer cachexia rat model generated by implantation of a peritoneal dissemination-derived human stomach cancer cell line. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 306(4):E373-E387.

[72]Teunissen SCCM, Wesker W, Kruitwagen C, et al., 2007. Symptom prevalence in patients with incurable cancer: a systematic review. J Pain Symptom Manage, 34(1):94-104.

[73]Tisdale MJ, 1997. Biology of cachexia. J Natl Cancer Inst, 89(23):1763-1773.

[74]von Haehling S, Anker SD, 2015. Treatment of cachexia: an overview of recent developments. Int J Cardiol, 184: 736-742.

[75]Wang H, Chan YL, Li TL, et al., 2012. Improving cachectic symptoms and immune strength of tumour-bearing mice in chemotherapy by a combination of Scutellaria baicalensis and Qing-Shu-Yi-Qi-Tang. Eur J Cancer, 48(7):1074-1084.

[76]Wang N, Tan HY, Li L, et al., 2015. Berberine and Coptidis Rhizoma as potential anticancer agents: recent updates and future perspectives. J Ethnopharmacol, 176:35-48.

[77]Wen HS, Li X, Cao YZ, et al., 2012. Clinical studies on the treatment of cancer cachexia with megestrol acetate plus thalidomide. Chemotherapy, 58(6):461-467.

[78]Wu X, Zhang HJ, Salmani JMM, et al., 2016. Advances of wogonin, an extract from Scutellaria baicalensis, for the treatment of multiple tumors. OncoTargets Ther, 9: 2935-2943.

[79]Xu Q, Brabham JG, Zhang SM, et al., 2005. Chinese herbal formula, Bing De Ling, enhances antitumor effects and ameliorates weight loss induced by 5-fluorouracil in the mouse CT26 tumor model. DNA Cell Biol, 24(7):470-475.

[80]Yae S, Takahashi F, Yae T, et al., 2012. Hochuekkito (TJ-41), a Kampo formula, ameliorates cachexia induced by colon 26 adenocarcinoma in mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2012:976926.

[81]Yamada C, Saegusa Y, Nakagawa K, et al., 2013. Rikkunshito, a Japanese Kampo medicine, ameliorates decreased feeding behavior via ghrelin and serotonin 2B receptor signaling in a novelty stress murine model. BioMed Res Int, 2013:792940.

[82]Yanagihara S, Kobayashi H, Tamiya H, et al., 2013. Protective effect of hochuekkito, a Kampo prescription, against ultraviolet B irradiation-induced skin damage in hairless mice. J Dermatol, 40(3):201-206.

[83]Yang SH, Kao TI, Chiang BL, et al., 2015. Immune-modulatory effects of Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang in ovalbumin-induced murine model of allergic asthma. PLoS ONE, 10(6):e0127636.

[84]Yao HT, Chang YW, Uramaru N, et al., 2012. Effects of Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes and plasma tolbutamide concentration in rats. J Ethnopharmacol, 142(1):121-128.

[85]Yennurajalingam S, Willey JS, Palmer JL, et al., 2012. The role of thalidomide and placebo for the treatment of cancer-related anorexia-cachexia symptoms: results of a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study. J Palliat Med, 15(10):1059-1064.

[86]Zhang JB, Zhuang PW, Wang Y, et al., 2014. Reversal of muscle atrophy by Zhimu-Huangbai herb-pair via Akt/ mTOR/FoxO3 signal pathway in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PLoS ONE, 9(6):e100918.

[87]Zhang Y, Dong H, Li Z, et al., 2010. Bing De Ling, a Chinese herbal formula, inhibits cancer cells growth via p53. Front Biosci, 2:221-230.

[88]Zhuang PW, Zhang JB, Wang Y, et al., 2016. Reversal of muscle atrophy by Zhimu and Huangbai herb pair via activation of IGF-1/Akt and autophagy signal in cancer cachexia. Support Care Cancer, 24(3):1189-1198.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion

<1>

Please provide your name, email address and a comment





Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2022 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE