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On-line Access: 2021-08-20

Received: 2020-09-26

Revision Accepted: 2021-02-14

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Hongyi LI




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Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2021 Vol.22 No.8 P.647-663


Layers of interstitial fluid flow along a “slit-shaped” vascular adventitia

Author(s):  Hongyi LI, You LYU, Xiaoliang CHEN, Bei LI, Qi HUA, Fusui JI, Yajun YIN, Hua LI

Affiliation(s):  Cardiology Department, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   leehongyi@bjhmoh.cn, huaqi5371@sina.com

Key Words:  Vascular adventitia, Interstitial fluid, Connective tissue, Interfacial zone

Hongyi LI, You LYU, Xiaoliang CHEN, Bei LI, Qi HUA, Fusui JI, Yajun YIN, Hua LI. Layers of interstitial fluid flow along a “slit-shaped” vascular adventitia[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2021, 22(8): 647-663.

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author="Hongyi LI, You LYU, Xiaoliang CHEN, Bei LI, Qi HUA, Fusui JI, Yajun YIN, Hua LI",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

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%T Layers of interstitial fluid flow along a “slit-shaped” vascular adventitia
%A Hongyi LI
%A You LYU
%A Xiaoliang CHEN
%A Bei LI
%A Fusui JI
%A Yajun YIN
%A Hua LI
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
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%P 647-663
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%D 2021
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.B2000590

T1 - Layers of interstitial fluid flow along a “slit-shaped” vascular adventitia
A1 - Hongyi LI
A1 - You LYU
A1 - Xiaoliang CHEN
A1 - Bei LI
A1 - Qi HUA
A1 - Fusui JI
A1 - Yajun YIN
A1 - Hua LI
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 22
IS - 8
SP - 647
EP - 663
%@ 1673-1581
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PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
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DOI - 10.1631/jzus.B2000590

interstitial fluid (ISF) flow through vascular adventitia has been discovered recently. However, its kinetic pattern was unclear. We used histological and topographical identification to observe ISF flow along venous vessels in rabbits. By magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in live subjects, the inherent pathways of ISF flow from the ankle dermis through the legs, abdomen, and thorax were enhanced by paramagnetic contrast. By fluorescence stereomicroscopy and layer-by-layer dissection after the rabbits were sacrificed, the perivascular and adventitial connective tissues (PACTs) along the saphenous veins and inferior vena cava were found to be stained by sodium fluorescein from the ankle dermis, which coincided with the findings by MRI. The direction of ISF transport in a venous PACT pathway was the same as that of venous blood flow. By confocal microscopy and histological analysis, the stained PACT pathways were verified to be the fibrous connective tissues, consisting of longitudinally assembled fibers. Real-time observations by fluorescence stereomicroscopy revealed at least two types of spaces for ISF flow: one along adventitial fibers and another one between the vascular adventitia and its covering fascia. Using nanoparticles and surfactants, a PACT pathway was found to be accessible by a nanoparticle of <100 nm and contained two parts: a transport channel and an absorptive part. The calculated velocity of continuous ISF flow along fibers of the PACT pathway was 3.6‒15.6 mm/s. These data revealed that a PACT pathway was a“slit-shaped”porous biomaterial, comprising a longitudinal transport channel and an absorptive part for imbibition. The use of surfactants suggested that interfacial tension might play an essential role in layers of continuous ISF flow along vascular vessels. A hypothetical “gel pump” is proposed based on interfacial tension and interactions to regulate ISF flow. These experimental findings may inspire future studies to explore the physiological and pathophysiological functions of vascular ISF or interfacial fluid flow among interstitial connective tissues throughout the body.




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