Full Text:   <294>

Summary:  <149>

CLC number: 

On-line Access: 2023-07-15

Received: 2023-03-15

Revision Accepted: 2023-06-02

Crosschecked: 2023-07-17

Cited: 0

Clicked: 454

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714




-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2023 Vol.24 No.7 P.554-573


Tea tree oil, a vibrant source of neuroprotection via neuroinflammation inhibition: a critical insight into repurposing Melaleuca alternifolia by unfolding its characteristics

Author(s):  Md Atiar RAHMAN, Abida SULTANA, Mohammad Forhad KHAN, Rachasak BOONHOK, Sharmin AFROZ

Affiliation(s):  Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331, Bangladesh; more

Corresponding email(s):   atiar@cu.ac.bd

Key Words:  Tea tree oil, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-viral, Antibacterial, Terpinen-4-ol, 1, 8-Cineole, Neuroprotective effect

Md Atiar RAHMAN, Abida SULTANA, Mohammad Forhad KHAN, Rachasak BOONHOK, Sharmin AFROZ. Tea tree oil, a vibrant source of neuroprotection via neuroinflammation inhibition: a critical insight into repurposing Melaleuca alternifolia by unfolding its characteristics[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2023, 24(7): 554-573.

@article{title="Tea tree oil, a vibrant source of neuroprotection via neuroinflammation inhibition: a critical insight into repurposing Melaleuca alternifolia by unfolding its characteristics",
author="Md Atiar RAHMAN, Abida SULTANA, Mohammad Forhad KHAN, Rachasak BOONHOK, Sharmin AFROZ",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Tea tree oil, a vibrant source of neuroprotection via neuroinflammation inhibition: a critical insight into repurposing Melaleuca alternifolia by unfolding its characteristics
%A Md Atiar RAHMAN
%A Mohammad Forhad KHAN
%A Rachasak BOONHOK
%A Sharmin AFROZ
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 24
%N 7
%P 554-573
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2023
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.B2300168

T1 - Tea tree oil, a vibrant source of neuroprotection via neuroinflammation inhibition: a critical insight into repurposing Melaleuca alternifolia by unfolding its characteristics
A1 - Md Atiar RAHMAN
A1 - Abida SULTANA
A1 - Mohammad Forhad KHAN
A1 - Rachasak BOONHOK
A1 - Sharmin AFROZ
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 24
IS - 7
SP - 554
EP - 573
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2023
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.B2300168

Over the past few decades, complementary and alternative treatments have become increasingly popular worldwide. The purported therapeutic characteristics of natural products have come under increased scrutiny both in vitro and in vivo as part of efforts to legitimize their usage. One such product is tea tree oil (TTO), a volatile essential oil primarily obtained from the native Australian plant, Melaleuca alternifolia, which has diverse traditional and industrial applications such as topical preparations for the treatment of skin infections. Its anti-inflammatory-linked immunomodulatory actions have also been reported. This systematic review focuses on the anti-inflammatory effects of TTO and its main components that have shown strong immunomodulatory potential. An extensive literature search was performed electronically for data curation on worldwide accepted scientific databases, such as Web of Science, Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and esteemed publishers such as Elsevier, Springer, Frontiers, and Taylor & Francis. Considering that the majority of pharmacological studies were conducted on crude oils only, the extracted data were critically analyzed to gain further insight into the prospects of TTO being used as a neuroprotective agent by drug formulation or dietary supplement. In addition, the active constituents contributing to the activity of TTO have not been well justified, and the core mechanisms need to be unveiled especially for anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects leading to neuroprotection. Therefore, this review attempts to correlate the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity of TTO with its neuroprotective mechanisms.


Md Atiar RAHMAN1,2, Abida SULTANA1, Mohammad Forhad KHAN3, Rachasak BOONHOK2,4, Sharmin AFROZ5
1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331, Bangladesh
2School of Allied Health Sciences, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand
3Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA 02125, USA
4Department of Medical Technology, School of Allied Health Sciences, and Research Excellence Center for Innovation and Health Products (RECIHP), Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand
5Department of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh
摘要:在过去的几十年里,补充和替代治疗在世界范围内越来越受欢迎。为使天然产品使用合法化,其治疗特性在体外和体内都受到了越来越多的审查。其中一种产品茶树油(TTO)是一种主要从澳大利亚本土植物互叶千层获得的挥发性精油,具有多种传统和工业应用,如用于治疗皮肤感染的外用制剂,或参与抗炎相关的免疫调节作用。本系统综述重点关注TTO及其主要成分的抗炎作用。我们对全球公认的科学数据库(如Web of Science、Google Scholar、PubMed、ScienceDirect、Scopus)和知名出版商(如Elsevier、Springer、Frontiers、和Taylor & Francis)进行了电子文献检索和数据管理。考虑到大多数药理学仅研究原油,因此我们对提取的数据进行了严格的分析,了解TTO通过药物制剂或膳食补充剂作为神经保护剂的前景。此外,促进TTO活性的有效成分还没有被很好地证明,特别是导致神经保护的抗炎和免疫调节作用的核心机制需要被揭示。因此,本综述试图将TTO的抗炎和免疫调节活性与其神经保护机制联系起来。


Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]AlFadlyED, ElzahharPA, TramarinA, et al., 2019. Tackling neuroinflammation and cholinergic deficit in Alzheimer’s disease: multi-target inhibitors of cholinesterases, cyclooxygenase-2 and 15-lipoxygenase. Eur J Med Chem, 167:161-186.

[2]AnguloP, 2002. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. N Engl J Med, 346(16):1221-1231.

[3]ArcellaA, OlivaMA, StaffieriS, et al., 2019. Tea tree oil a new natural adjuvant for inhibiting glioblastoma growth. J Pharmacogn Phytother, 11(3):61-73.

[4]AruomaOI, BahorunT, JenLS, 2003. Neuroprotection by bioactive components in medicinal and food plant extracts. Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res, 544(2-3):203-215.

[5]AstaniA, SchnitzlerP, 2014. Antiviral activity of monoterpenes beta-pinene and limonene against herpes simplex virus in vitro. Iran J Microbiol, 6(3):149-155.

[6]AstaniA, ReichlingJ, SchnitzlerP, 2010. Comparative study on the antiviral activity of selected monoterpenes derived from essential oils. Phytother Res, 24(5):673-679.

[7]ATTIA (Australian Tea Tree Industry Association), 2020. Australian Tea Tree Oil, Melaleuca alternifolia. ISO 4730:2017. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.

[8]BarnesPJ, KarinM, 1997. Nuclear factor-κB—a pivotal transcription factor in chronic inflammatory diseases. N Engl J Med, 336(15):1066-1071.

[9]BassettIB, BarnetsonRSC, PannowitzDL, 1990. A comparative study of tea-tree oil versus benzoylperoxide in the treatment of acne. Med J Aust, 153(8):455-458.

[10]BischoffK, GualeF, 1998. Australian tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil poisoning in three purebred cats. J Vet Diagn Invest, 10(2):208-210.

[11]BlaserH, DostertC, MakTW, et al., 2016. TNF and ROS crosstalk in inflammation. Trends Cell Biol, 26(4):249-261.

[12]BrandC, FerranteA, PragerRH, et al., 2001. The water-soluble components of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil) suppress the production of superoxide by human monocytes, but not neutrophils, activated in vitro. Inflamm Res, 50(4):213-219.

[13]BrophyJJ, DaviesNW, SouthwellIA, et al., 1989. Gas chromatographic quality control for oil of Melaleuca terpinen-4-ol type (Australian tea tree). J Agric Food Chem, 37(5):1330-1335.

[14]ByahattiS, BogarC, BhatK, et al., 2018. Evaluation of anticancer activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (i.‍e. tea tree oil) on Leukemia cancer cell line (K562): an in vitro study. J Med Plants Stud, 6(5):1-6.

[15]CalcabriniA, StringaroA, ToccacieliL, et al., 2004. Terpinen-4-ol, the main component of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil inhibits the in vitro growth of human melanoma cells. J Invest Dermatol, 122(2):349-360.

[16]Caldefie-ChézetF, GuerryM, ChalchatJC, et al., 2004. Anti-inflammatory effects of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil on human polymorphonuclear neutrophils and monocytes. Free Radic Res, 38(8):805-811.

[17]CarsonCF, HammerKA, RileyTV, 1995. Broth micro-dilution method for determining the susceptibility of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil). Microbios, 82(332):181-185.

[18]CarsonCF, HammerKA, RileyTV, 2006. Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil: a review of antimicrobial and other medicinal properties. Clin Microbiol Rev, 19(1):50-62.

[19]CasellaF, VurroM, ValerioF, et al., 2023. Phytotoxic effects of essential oils from six Lamiaceae species. Agronomy, 13(1):257.

[20]ChampionRH, BurtonJL, EblingFJG, 1992. Rook’s Textbook of Dermatology. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, UK.

[21]ChaoSC, YoungDG, ObergCJ, 2000. Screening for inhibitory activity of essential oils on selected bacteria, fungi and viruses. J Essent Oil Res, 12(5):639-649.

[22]ChoiYR, KangMK, 2017. Antibacterial effect of tea tree on Streptococcus mutans. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg, 17(4):613-620.

[23]ChristophF, KaulfersPM, Stahl-BiskupE, 2000. A comparative study of the in vitro antimicrobial activity of tea tree oils s.l. with special reference to the activity of β‍-triketones. Planta Med, 66(6):556-560.

[24]CoxSD, MannCM, MarkhamJL, et al., 2000. The mode of antimicrobial action of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil). J Appl Microbiol, 88(1):170-175.

[25]CuttleL, KempfM, KravchukO, et al., 2008. The efficacy of Aloe vera, tea tree oil and saliva as first aid treatment for partial thickness burn injuries. Burns, 34(8):1176-1182.

[26]CzubowiczK, StrosznajderR, 2014. Ceramide in the molecular mechanisms of neuronal cell death. The role of sphingosine-1-phosphate. Mol Neurobiol, 50(1):26-37.

[27]D'AuriaFD, LainoL, StrippoliV, et al., 2001. In vitro activity of tea tree oil against Candida albicans mycelial conversion and other pathogenic fungi. J Chemother, 13(4):377-383.

[28]de GrootAC, WeylandJW, 1992. Systemic contact dermatitis from tea tree oil. Contact Dermatitis, 27(4):279-280.

[29]de GrootAC, SchmidtE, 2016. Tea tree oil: contact allergy and chemical composition. Contact Dermatitis, 75(3):129-143.

[30]delBeccaro MA, 1995. Melaleuca oil poisoning in a 17-month-old. Vet Hum Toxicol, 37(6):557-558.

[31]DemirI, KiymazN, GuduBO, et al., 2013. Study of the neuroprotective effect of ginseng on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels in experimental diffuse head trauma. Acta Neurochir, 155(5):913-922.

[32]DengQH, LiuGW, LiuL, et al., 2015. BHBA influences bovine hepatic lipid metabolism via AMPK signaling pathway. J Cell Biochem, 116(6):1070-1079.

[33]de Oliveira ManoelAL, MacdonaldRL, 2018. Neuroinflammation as a target for intervention in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Front Neurol, 9:292.

[34]DuanXC, WenZJ, ShenHT, et al., 2016. Intracerebral hemorrhage, oxidative stress, and antioxidant therapy. Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2016:1203285.

[35]ECHA (European Chemicals Agency), 2021. Melaleuca alternifolia, ext. (tea tree oil; CAS No. 85085-48-9). https://echa.europa.eu/en/registration-dossier/-/registered-dossier/20921

[36]EODL (Essential Oils Direct Ltd.), 2011. Material safety data sheet: tea tree oil (Melaleuca Alternifolia (tea tree) leaf oil). http://www.‍‍essentialoilsdirect.‍‍co.‍‍uk/tea_tree-melaleuca_alternifolia-essential_oil.html

[37]Espinosa-DiezC, MiguelV, MennerichD, et al., 2015. Antioxidant responses and cellular adjustments to oxidative stress. Redox Biol, 6:183-197.

[38]FerrentinoG, MorozovaK, HornC, et al., 2020. Extraction of essential oils from medicinal plants and their utilization as food antioxidants. Curr Pharm Des, 26(5):519-541.

[39]ForrerM, KulikEM, FilippiA, et al., 2013. The antimicrobial activity of alpha-bisabolol and tea tree oil against Solobacterium moorei, a Gram-positive bacterium associated with halitosis. Arch Oral Biol, 58(1):10-16.

[40]GarozzoA, TimpanaroR, BisignanoB, et al., 2009. In vitro antiviral activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil. Lett Appl Microbiol, 49(6):806-808.

[41]GreaySJ, IrelandDJ, KissickHT, et al., 2010. Induction of necrosis and cell cycle arrest in murine cancer cell lines by Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and terpinen-4-ol. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol, 65(5):877-888.

[42]GuptaAK, NicolK, BatraR, 2004. Role of antifungal agents in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. Am J Clin Dermatol, 5(6):417-422.

[43]HammerKA, CarsonCF, RileyTV, 1996. Susceptibility of transient and commensal skin flora to the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil). Am J Infect Control, 24(3):186-189.

[44]HammerKA, DryL, JohnsonM, et al., 2003. Susceptibility of oral bacteria to Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil in vitro. Oral Microbiol Immunol, 18(6):389-392.

[45]HammerKA, CarsonCF, RileyTV, et al., 2006. A review of the toxicity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil. Food Chem Toxicol, 44(5):616-625.

[46]HammerKA, CarsonCF, RileyTV, 2016. Antifungal activity of tea tree oil in vitro. A report for the Rural Industries Research and Develoment Corporation (RIRDC). https://rirdc.infoservices.com.au/downloads/01-011

[47]HartPH, BrandC, CarsonCF, et al., 2000. Terpinen-4-ol, the main component of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil), suppresses inflammatory mediator production by activated human monocytes. Inflamm Res, 49(11):619-626.

[48]HatamiM, MortazaviM, BaseriZ, et al., 2023. Antioxidant compounds in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: natural, hybrid, and synthetic products. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2023:8056462.

[49]HausenBM, ReichlingJ, HarkenthalM, 1999. Degradation products of monoterpenes are the sensitizing agents in tea tree oil. Am J Contact Dermat, 10(2):68-77.

[50]HayesAJ, LeachDN, MarkhamJL, et al., 1997. In vitro cytotoxicity of Australian tea tree oil using human cell lines. J Essent Oil Res, 9(5):575-582.

[51]HenleyDV, LipsonN, KorachKS, et al., 2007. Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils. N Engl J Med, 356(5):479-485.

[52]HomerLE, LeachDN, LeaD, et al., 2000. Natural variation in the essential oil content of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (Myrtaceae). Biochem Syst Ecol, 28(4):367-382.

[53]HungNH, QuanPM, SatyalP, et al., 2022. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of essential oils from Vietnamese traditional medicinal plants. Molecules, 27(20):7092.

[54]HussainH, AhmadS, ShahSWA, et al., 2021. Neuroprotective potential of synthetic mono-carbonyl curcumin analogs assessed by molecular docking studies. Molecules, 26(23):7168.

[55]IrelandDJ, GreaySJ, HooperCM, et al., 2012. Topically applied Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil causes direct anti-cancer cytotoxicity in subcutaneous tumour bearing mice. J Dermatol Sci, 67(2):120-129.

[56]JacobsMR, HornfeldtCS, 1994. Melaleuca oil poisoning. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol, 32(4):461-464.

[57]JainS, AroraP, NainwalLM, 2022. Essential oils as potential source of anti-dandruff agents: a review. Comb Chem High Throughput Screening, 25(9):1411-1426.

[58]JoshiYB, PraticòD, 2015. The 5-lipoxygenase pathway: oxidative and inflammatory contributions to the Alzheimer’s disease phenotype. Front Cell Neurosci, 8:436.

[59]KhalilZ, PearceAL, SatkunanathanN, et al., 2004. Regulation of wheal and flare by tea tree oil: complementary human and rodent studies. J Invest Dermatol, 123(4):683-690.

[60]KohKJ, PearceAL, MarshmanG, et al., 2002. Tea tree oil reduces histamine-induced skin inflammation. Br J Dermatol, 147(6):1212-1217.

[61]KumarH, MoreSV, HanSD, et al., 2012. Promising therapeutics with natural bioactive compounds for improving learning and memory—a review of randomized trials. Molecules, 17(9):10503-10539.

[62]Küpeli AkkolE, Tatlı ÇankayaI, Şeker KaratoprakG, et al., 2021. Natural compounds as medical strategies in the prevention and treatment of psychiatric disorders seen in neurological diseases. Front Pharmacol, 12:669638.

[63]LecomteV, MeugnierE, EuthineV, et al., 2010. A new role for sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 transcription factors in the regulation of muscle mass and muscle cell differentiation. Mol Cell Biol, 30(5):1182-1198.

[64]LeeCJ, ChenLW, ChenLG, et al., 2013. Correlations of the components of tea tree oil with its antibacterial effects and skin irritation. J Food Drug Anal, 21(2):169-176.

[65]LeeKAYR, HarnettJE, CairnsR, 2020. Essential oil exposures in Australia: analysis of cases reported to the NSW Poisons Information Centre. Med J Aust, 212(3):132-133.

[66]LeeKH, ChaM, LeeBH, 2020. Neuroprotective effect of antioxidants in the brain. Int J Mol Sci, 21(19):7152.

[67]LiX, DuanS, ChuC, et al., 2013. Melaleuca alternifolia concentrate inhibits in vitro entry of influenza virus into host cells. Molecules, 18(8):9550-9566.

[68]LinGQ, ChenHY, ZhouHJ, et al., 2018. Preparation of tea tree oil/poly (styrene-butyl methacrylate) microspheres with sustained release and anti-bacterial properties. Materials, 11(5):710.

[69]LiuMY, ZhengXC, SunCX, et al., 2022. Tea tree oil mediates antioxidant factors relish and Nrf2-autophagy axis regulating the lipid metabolism of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Antioxidants, 11(11):2260.

[70]LuM, HanZ, XuY, et al., 2013. In vitro and in vivo anti-tobacco mosaic virus activities of essential oils and individual compounds. J Microbiol Biotechnol, 23(6):‍771-778.

[71]Martín-MontañezE, MillonC, BoraldiF, et al., 2017. IGF-II promotes neuroprotection and neuroplasticity recovery in a long-lasting model of oxidative damage induced by glucocorticoids. Redox Biol, 13:69-81.

[72]MikusJ, HarkenthalM, SteverdingD, et al., 2000. In vitro effect of essential oils and isolated mono- and sesquiterpenes on Leishmania major and Trypanosoma brucei. Planta Med, 66(4):366-368.

[73]MinSLS, LiewSY, ChearNJY, et al., 2022. Plant terpenoids as the promising source of cholinesterase inhibitors for anti-AD therapy. Biology, 11(2):307.

[74]MinamiM, KitaM, NakayaT, et al., 2003. The inhibitory effect of essential oils on herpes simplex virus type-1 replication in vitro. Microbiol Immunol, 47(9):681-684.

[75]MohamedM, AzizMA, GEDAJIJOPSAbuo-Rahma, et al., 2021. Ultrasound-assisted green synthesis of 2,‍4-thiazolidinedione and diaryl substituted pyrazolylthiazolidinediones catalyzed by β‍-alanine. Int J Phar Sci Drug Anal, 1(1):18-25.

[76]MondelloF, de BernardisF, GirolamoA, et al., 2006. In vivo activity of terpinen-4-ol, the main bioactive component of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (tea tree) oil against azole-susceptible and -resistant human pathogenic Candida species. BMC Infect Dis, 6:158.

[77]MontserratN, GabillardJC, CapillaE, et al., 2007. Role of insulin, insulin-like growth factors, and muscle regulatory factors in the compensatory growth of the trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Gen Comp Endocrinol, 150(3):462-472.

[78]MorrisMC, DonoghueA, MarkowitzJA, et al., 2003. Ingestion of tea tree oil (Melaleucaoil) by a 4-year-old boy. Pediatr Emerg Care, 19(3):169-171.

[79]MullenTD, HannunYA, ObeidLM, 2012. Ceramide synthases at the centre of sphingolipid metabolism and biology. Biochem J, 441(3):789-802.

[80]ExtractsNative, 2020. Safety data sheet: Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) leaf extract.

[81]NenoffP, HausteinUF, BrandtW, 1996. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil) against pathogenic fungi in vitro. Skin Pharmacol Physiol, 9(6):388-394.

[82]NinomiyaK, HayamaK, IshijimaSA, et al., 2013. Suppression of inflammatory reactions by terpinen-4-ol, a main constituent of tea tree oil, in a murine model of oral candidiasis and its suppressive activity to cytokine production of macrophages in vitro. Biol Pharm Bull, 36(5):838-844.

[83]NogueiraMNM, AquinoSG, Rossa JuniorC, et al., 2014. Terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol (tea tree oil components) inhibit the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 on human macrophages. Inflamm Res, 63(9):769-778.

[84]ParkH, JangCH, ChoYB, et al., 2007. Antibacterial effect of tea-tree oil on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation of the tympanostomy tube: an in vitro study. In Vivo, 21(6):1027-1030.

[85]PazyarN, YaghoobiR, 2012. Tea tree oil as a novel antipsoriasis weapon. Skin Pharmacol Physiol, 25(3):162-163.

[86]PizzinoG, IrreraN, CucinottaM, et al., 2017. Oxidative stress: harms and benefits for human health. Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2017:8416763.

[87]PyankovOV, UsachevEV, PyankovaO, et al., 2012. Inactivation of airborne influenza virus by tea tree and eucalyptus oils. Aerosol Sci Technol, 46(12):1295-1302.

[88]RamageG, MilliganS, LappinDF, et al., 2012. Antifungal, cytotoxic, and immunomodulatory properties of tea tree oil and its derivative components: potential role in management of oral candidosis in cancer patients. Front Microbiol, 3:220.

[89]RIRDC (Rural Industry Research and Development Corporation), 2007. The effectiveness and safety of Australian tea tree oil. http://www.‍teatreewonders.‍com/support-files/teatreeeffectiveness-andsafetyreport-sbiupload.pdf

[90]Rojas-GarcíaA, Fernández-OchoaÁ, de la Luz Cádiz-Gurrea M, et al., 2023. Neuroprotective effects of agri-food by-products rich in phenolic compounds. Nutrients, 15(2):449.

[91]RomeoA, IacovelliF, ScagnolariC, et al., 2022. Potential use of tea tree oil as a disinfectant agent against coronaviruses: a combined experimental and simulation study. Molecules, 27(12):3786.

[92]SaikiaA, DasM, SaikiaQ, 2018. Hepatoprotective potential of the methanolic extract of Colocasia esculenta on iron overload induced mice. Med Plnts Int Jrnl Phyt Rela Ind, 10(3):243-251.

[93]Sánchez-MartínezJD, BuenoM, Alvarez-RiveraG, et al., 2021. In vitro neuroprotective potential of terpenes from industrial orange juice by-products. Food Funct, 12(1):302-314.

[94]SCCP (Scientific Committee on Consumer Products), 2008. Opinion on tea tree oil. http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_sccp/docs/sccp_o_160.pdf

[95]SchnitzlerP, SchönK, ReichlingJ, 2001. Antiviral activity of Australian tea tree oil and eucalyptus oil against herpes simplex virus in cell culture. Pharmazie, 56(4):343-347.

[96]SlifierzMJ, FriendshipR, de LangeCF, et al., 2013. An epidemiological investigation into the association between biomarkers and growth performance in nursery pigs. BMC Vet Res, 9:247.

[97]TekeliMY, EraslanG, BayramLÇ, et al., 2023. The protective effects of baicalin and chrysin against emamectin benzoate-induced toxicity in Wistar albino rats. Environ Sci Pollut Res, 30(18):53997-54021.

[98]TGSCInformation System, 2015. Tea tree oil. http://www.


[100]ThosarN, BasakS, BahadureRN, et al., 2013. Antimicrobial efficacy of five essential oils against oral pathogens: an in vitro study. Eur J Dent, 7(S1):S071-S077.

[101]TisserandR, YoungR, 2014. Essential Oil Safety. A Guide of Health Care Professionals, 2nd Ed. Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier.

[102]TodaN, AyajikiK, OkamuraT, 2009. Cerebral blood flow regulation by nitric oxide: recent advances. Pharmacol Rev, 61(1):62-97.

[103]TongMM, AltmanPM, BarnetsonRS, 1992. Tea tree oil in the treatment of tinea pedis. Australas J Dermatol, 33(3):145-149.

[104]UsachevEV, PyankovOV, UsachevaOV, et al., 2013. Antiviral activity of tea tree and eucalyptus oil aerosol and vapour. J Aerosol Sci, 59:22-30.

[105]van der ValkP, de GrootA, BruynzeelD, et al., 1994. Allergic contact eczema due to ‘tea tree’ oil. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd, 138(16):823-825 (in Dutch).

[106]VeienNK, RosnerK, SkovgaardGL, 2004. Is tea tree oil an important contact allergen? Contact Dermatitis, 50(6):378-379.

[107]WaldroupW, ScheinfeldN, 2008. Medicated shampoos for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. J Drugs Dermatol, 7(7):699-703.

[108]WHO (World Health Organization), 2012. WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants: Volume 2. Aetheroleum Melaleucae alternifoliae. World Health Organization, Geneva, p.172-179.

[109]Wojtunik-KuleszaKA, KasprzakK, OniszczukT, et al., 2019. Natural monoterpenes: much more than only a scent. Chem Biodivers, 16(12):e1900434.

[110]WróblewskaM, SzymańskaE, WinnickaK, 2021. The influence of tea tree oil on antifungal activity and pharmaceutical characteristics of Pluronic® F-127 gel formulations with ketoconazole. Int J Mol Sci, 22(21):11326.

[111]YangTY, MaXY, JiangMC, et al., 2022a. The role of tea tree oil in alleviating palmitic acid-induced lipid accumulation in bovine hepatocytes. Front Vet Sci, 8:814840.

[112]YangTY, FengFF, ZhanK, et al., 2022b. Effect of the tea tree oil on growth performance, meat quality, serum biochemical indices, and antioxidant capacity in finishing pigs. Front Vet Sci, 9:916625.

[113]ZhengJ, WinderickxJ, FranssensV, et al., 2018. A mitochondria-associated oxidative stress perspective on Huntington’s disease. Front Mol Neurosci, 11:329.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2024 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE